Comments by Commenter

  • Abdelhamid AlRahamneh

  • Abdullah Qamar

    • In the context of Emerging technologies in education, such as online learning platforms, digital content, and virtual classrooms, have the potential to reach remote and underserved areas, thus addressing the pre-existing digital divide. However, challenges such as lack of internet infrastructure, device availability, and digital literacy still need to be overcome. This involves ensuring that educational platforms are accessible to all, including people with disabilities.his will require a combination of innovative approaches, public-private partnerships, and regulatory frameworks to ensure that these technologies contribute to a more inclusive and equitable education system in the Asia Pacific region and beyond.

    • As a community, I think we can play a critical role in fostering trust in the emerging technologies landscape. By promoting education, transparency, security, and ethical practices, while contributing to creating a safe and trustworthy digital environment for all stakeholders.

  • Adarsh pandey

  • Adeel Sadiq

  • Adli Wahid

  • Adnan

  • Adrian Wan

  • Adrian Wan

    • For those of us with access to the Internet, it is a technology that plays an increasingly central role in our daily lives, letting us work, study, and connect with friends and family from around the world.

      But the Internet – including infrastructure and devices, applications and services, and the relevant policies and regulations – is in a constant state of flux. Governments and businesses are increasingly making decisions that could impact the Internet. If we fail to recognize, protect, and support what makes the Internet valuable, we risk a series of irreversible and accelerating changes that chip away and ultimately break the foundation underpinning this incredible resource for us all.

      That is why as the Internet evolves it is key for all Internet stakeholders to understand any change that can threaten the fundamentals of the Internet. We should be able to tell if a proposal could harm what makes the Internet work for everyone.

    • Today, the Internet plays an essential role in the majority of societies around the world. From banking to education, health to logistics, just about every sector relies on Internet-based applications and services to function.

      Our increased dependence on digital technologies brings with it growing concerns around Internet security. While there are many dimensions to Internet security, securing the key building blocks of the Internet’s infrastructure is critical.

      The Internet’s routing system enables data to flow from one point to another. Ensuring that this data flows correctly, and to its intended recipient, is the foundation of Internet security.

      Thousands of Internet routing incidents occur every year, leading to economic and social harm by making key services unreachable, disrupting e-commerce, allowing malicious actors to spy on users and with it, the potential to compromise systems.

      While existing security measures can help address many of these routing incidents, the solutions they provide are often limited. The interconnected nature of networks means that many solutions only work when other networks make the same improvements. We need collective action to make a real change.

      In support of the larger Internet security agenda, policymakers should work with network and infrastructure operators, critical infrastructure protection agencies and standards bodies, among others, to improve global routing security while also preserving vital aspects of the system that have allowed the Internet to be open and universal.

  • Afiq Ammar

    • Propose for the last sentence “Strategic public-private partnerships can provide potential solutions to bridge the digital divide in terms of Internet connectivity, provision of devices and skills training.” to be incorporated into or combined with paragraph 9, as connectivity, devices and digital literacy are key elements and equally important in fostering and achieving digital inclusion.

    • In discussing about the freedom of speech and expression, we must also look into the importance or sort of rights for the users or public-at-large to obtain a correct and reliable information.

      We definitely do not want to see the Internet flooded with mischievous and irresponsible speeches or expressions that would not just eliminate trust but also creating an unhealthy environment and ecosystem.

  • AL


  • Alisha Gurung

    • Network shutdown is still happening in the Asia Pacific and when that’s done , general public is completely ok with the government’s decision thinking it must be for them. The general public isn’t aware of their access rights..so a strong awareness with regard to ones access rights is required in the Asia Pacific and in countries like Bhutan where Sig has not been retained yet.

    • We 51 protection of child online: importance of child safely complaints tools

      1) takes about different child abuses like cyber bullying, emotional abuse, sexting, sexual abuse, sexual exploitations, child
      pornography and so on..

      2) talked about iwf(internet watch foundation) which allows people all over the world to report online child abuse.

      3) talked about what solutions can be provided which mostly stated that awareness is the key and the parents, teachers, government and the operators should come together to tackle the issue..

    • We 51 protection of child online: importance of child safely complaints tools

      I would further like to state that cyber security classes should be mandated in all schools by the governments of each nation and more awareness should be made for parents,teachers and also to children on this regard..

  • Aliza Basharat


    • While I agree that access and inclusion is important, we must also take into account communities that choose not to be connected such as the indigenous people due to a myriad of reasons, one of which could be because of sacred culture and the need for them to protect it. At the same time, the government and other parties involved should still find a way to ensure they are not neglected and completely shut out from the world.

  • Amrita Choudhury

    • Public access not only helps to improve digital literacy and provide access to marginalized and under served communities, it also helps to provide “assisted access” to people who are not internet savvy.

    • For ensuring Cyber security, Privacy and Safer Internet, it is imperative that there is collaboration and more emphasis on capacity building among decision makers on the implications of their decisions,

    • A multi stakeholder approach to resolve the issue of universal acceptance is of prime importance. Industry, government, technolologist, academia, civil society, need to come together, discuss and work to resole the issue. It is also very important to take the views of internet users and non users about what they want, since they would be the ones who would use internet in local language in the future.

    • Shut downs leads to social instability, human insecurity and loss of peoples trust in situations often marked with social and political unrest. It is important to measure the impact of internet shut down and also to analyse what situations trigger internet shutdowns and who is given the iscretionary power to do so. Further what are the extreme situtaions when internet can be shut down and what is the process that will be followed needs to be discussed.
      Infact rather than trying to shut the internet Dialogue, transparency and openness to try and find alternate solutions to this difficult issue could be the approach.

    • The gender digital divide should also highlight in access and the strategies which need to be adopted by nations to connect the women, the marginalised and disable.

    • This could perhaps be added after the last sentence , The greatest challenge ………………..skills of participants.

      Another challenge is in scaling up and sustaining these initiatives.

    • Apart from promoting digital literacy there is a need to improve gender rights online too. To improve inclusion especially of women and protect their rights online, a study called “Views & Perspectives on Gender Rights Online, For the Global South” (http://www.ccaoi.in/UI/links/fwresearch/Report of Study on the Views and Perspectives on Gender Rights Online for the Global South Final.pdf), suggests implementation of better and effective policies; encouraging ICT skills and Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) studies amongst women and encouraging digital literacy; policy reforms for ensuring gender inclusive access to the internet; building trust online, including better legislation and enforcement of laws against online harassment; economic incentives to encourage diversity in the workforce; encouraging more engagement amongst women networks and promoting content in local language.

    • Growing misinformation, disinformation, hate speech and harassment is definitely a growing issue. However, there can be no binary solution to this issue.
      Fake news has always been there in our society, the only concern is with the use of technology the reach and impact has dramatically increased.
      Apart from regulations, or companies introducing measures within their products or services to reduce such incidents, capacity building and educating the community on digital etiquette is important. The civil society can play a critical role in this. Also, there is a need for more academic research on these issues – including what motivates some communities to react or spread/ share news while not others, etc.
      It is an issue of the whole community and can only be addressed when the whole multistakeholder community works on it together. Blocking, shutting or restricting the internet will not help.
      Having said that various initiatives are being taken by online companies in tackling these issues. While few have helped, there is more that needs to be done.

    • To be able to address issues of inclusion it is important to have correct data which will help in formulating appropriate strategies so the suitable methodology can approach can be adopted at all levels: building infrastructure, connecting people, addressing social barriers, capacity building. There is also a need for more cooperation between different stakeholders, countries to share data, best practices and have more dialogues. This will help to address many issues.

  • ananda niraula

  • Anastasiya Kazakova

  • Andirauga Paru Nongkas (Andi)

  • Andrew Joe Tungon

  • Andrew Kalman


    • I’m inclined to agree with KS Park that the Right to be Forgotten should not be mentioned at this time. The reason is that it is a right that comes “after” the right of privacy. Without the right of privacy, the RTBF will not be a meaningful right.

    • Addressing Intermediary Liability appropriately is a critical step in enhancing the use of the Internet. To that end, the Manila Principles have been drafted after extensive consultation at the RightsCon 2015. More work needs to be done to put the Manila Principles into practice.

    • I think that specific reference to TPP needs to be removed. Athough the TPP is the first trade agreement for the digital age, the TPP process has, regrettably, been less than exemplary from a multistakeholder perspective.

    • Comment: Minor tweaks, mostly for grammar and clarity. Also, I think replaced the word “balance” because the solution to arriving at a balance is a compromise, which may not be appropriate here. And in keeping with the tenor of competing, I have used that in place of “conflict”.

      The right to be forgotten as a principle must be approached with caution. Significant and competing issues relating to its extraterritorial application, digitised media archives and the integrity of historical records, the rights of individuals and media freedoms must be weighed carefully.

      Moreover, emerging jurisprudence suggests competing public interest as it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for information or intermediaries facilitating that search such as libraries, educational institutions, archives and search engines.

    • Really minor: hyphenate “gender-based”

    • As the opening plenary was on the Gender Divide, perhaps this item should be moved higher if not close to the very top.

    • [Therefore strategies must infrastructure-based]
      A word or phrase is missing.

    • This sentence is clunky. It’s too wordy and this gets in the way of being comprehensible. The suggested edit follows.

      As improved technologies facilitate access for the next billion Internet users, it is important that the individual and collective uniqueness, and the linguistic, geographic and cultural diversity that these new users bring to the Internet be supported, conserved and enhanced through inclusive policy measures such as the universal acceptance of internationalised domain names.

    • [Whether it is security, stability and resilience of the Internet infrastructure or security of network and information systems, , to issues on safety, privacy and data protection, collaboration and capacity building[22] are needed to mitigate[23] and prevent cyber security incidents[24] within and beyond the Asia Pacific region, and the setting of global encryption standards is encouraged[25].]

      Suggested edit.

      Collaboration and capacity building[22] are needed to mitigate[23] and prevent cyber security incidents[24] within and beyond the Asia Pacific region, and the setting of global encryption standards is encouraged[25].]

    • [agreed international conventions and declarations]

      Delete “agreed” on redundancy.

    • [Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45].]

      Recommend moving this up to the start of the paragraph.

    • [Human rights agreements should apply to the Internet environment in the areas of access and development, freedom of expression[39], right to assembly and privacy as well as on the right to information, education, health, culture, and to a broad range of other rights[40] as set out in the WSIS Geneva Declaration of Principles[41], Tunis Agenda for the Information Society[42], and other agreed international conventions and declarations[43].  The impact of existing and emerging laws, policies, and practices on the security of network and information systems, data protection, surveillance, anonymity, intermediary liability and cyber-crime must protect human rights and meet international standards for guarantees.  These issues have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate by all stakeholders at the APrIGF meeting.  The application of human rights should also consider issues of gender, disability, age and sexuality[44].  Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45].]

      Suggested edit.
      Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45]. Therefore, human rights agreements should apply to the Internet environment in such as set out in the WSIS Geneva Declaration of Principles[41], Tunis Agenda for the Information Society[42], and other international conventions and declarations[43]. These areas include access and development, freedom of expression[39], right to assembly and privacy as well as on the right to information, education, health, culture.  Laws, policies, and practices on the security of network and information systems, data protection, surveillance, anonymity, intermediary liability and cyber-crime must protect human rights and meet international standards for guarantees. The application of human rights should also consider issues of gender, disability, age and sexuality[44]. These issues hwere the subject of intense scrutiny and debate by stakeholders at the APrIGF meeting.  

    • I think “legality of” in the first line should be replaced with “issues of”. The reason is that it seems to be an issue of legality but if so, any illegality can be easily “cured” be passage of a law.

    • Suggest amending the last sentence by adding to it the words in quotation marks:
      At the same time, Internet shutdowns and restrictions are detrimental to the freedom of expression and right of universal access to Internet “and so should be kept to the minimum in duration and in compliance with due process.”

  • Anju

  • Anupam Agrawal

  • APrIGF Secretariat

  • Aris

  • Armaan Choudhary

    • When we talk about the term ‘trust’ the concept of ‘consent’ becomes really significant. In the Indian context, the recent DPDP Act introduces the concept of ‘consent manager’. A third-party entity responsible for managing the consent of a user – whether or not a data fiduciary can use their data and if yes then how. Whether this is the best way to manage one’s consent or not is something that is subjective. Still, I believe if we are to develop a framework that ensures that the ‘consent’ of the user with respect to their personal data is given the utmost priority, we would be able to lay a strong foundation of trust between various stakeholders in the digital world.

    • I completely agree with Maria. The meaning of the term ‘meaningful access’ extends beyond infrastructure to digital literacy. It is essential in order to enable such marginalized groups to raise their voices and enjoy the benefits of the Internet. One such example is the Indira Gandhi Smartphone Yojana in Rajasthan, India wherein over 1.4 crore smartphones would be distributed to women and students. While the scheme aims at empowering women, not proportional attention is given to making them digitally literate to actually use such a device and keep themselves safe from rising cybercrimes like online sexual harassment, identity theft and many others.

    • As discussed and pointed out in the session by the speakers it is unfortunate but true that various stakeholders including the government might only be interested in looking at the impact of internet shutdowns from an economic point of view.

      At Youth IGF India we got a chance to understand the workings of a NetLoss Calculator developed by the Internet Society. This tool can calculate the economic impact of an internet shutdown over a period of time in different countries. It calculates loss in terms of GDP, FDI, and increase in unemployment at the national level. I believe that we should develop more such tools that not only keep track of shutdowns but also quantify their impact. This would help incentivize not only the civil society but also the private sector and the government to stand against the use of internet shutdowns to maintain public order.

  • Arthit

  • Arthit Suriyawongkul

  • Arzak Khan

  • Aviral Kaintura

    • About the software updates bloatware situation, I think there should be a smaller, high priority updates that only contain security patches for vulnerabilities so, that people can update their devices with the latest security definitions, without having to install other non-essential updates at the same time. Major version updates that contain new features and UI changes could still be optional. This separation would ensure devices get critical security fixes as soon as possible, while allowing users to decide when they want larger updates that change functionality.

    • My comment is regarding the Consent and Right to Withdrawal, there should be a proper, easy and reliable way for people to withdraw their consent later on and a place for users to revoke access to their data when they want. A lot of times, people only use an app or service for a short period of time, and they may not want their personal information to be lingering around at companies they no longer engage with frequently. Many tech companies don’t provide a single and straightforward way for general public to withdraw consent and delete data. There should be simple, accessible options within services to allow people to revoke consent and remove their information.

  • Aye Chan San

    • Building trust is not a easy process. Building online trust is much harder since many people are not still familiar with the digital technology.
      Transparency could be one of the solution. Government and private sectors companies should provide them how they are using the data for what purpose. The role of media is also very important in building online trust because people are usually convinced by a lot of media. Once the media mislead some information, it will spread throughout many communities. Therefore, misinformation and disinformation should be strongly restricted by the government by digital laws and regulation.

  • Aziman Abdullah


    • First sentence sounds a bit stretch, digital is one of many enabler for the global economy. We should not forget other enablers such as infrastructure, education, science and technology.

      I think we should distinguish between ” free flow of information” and “free flow of data”. So the sentence can be rephrased as: how do we ensure a successful economy with trust, free flow of data, and appropriate domestic and global rules well balancing privacy, security and other regulatory concerns including financial and tax regulations.

    • First sentence sounds a bit stretch, digital is one of many enabler for the global economy. We should not forget other enablers such as infrastructure, education, science and technology.

      I think we should distinguish between ” free flow of information” and “free flow of data”. So the sentence can be rephrased as: how do we ensure a successful economy with trust, free flow of data, and appropriate domestic and global rules well balancing privacy, security and other regulatory concerns including financial and tax regulations.

    • Sorry this should paragraph 10 not 6. Please ignore this comment

    • In WS105 panel on digital trade and development, concerns were expressed about the implications of the trade rules which have been agreed in recent free trade agreements and proposed at the World Trade Organization such as: cross-border data flows, e-signatures, restrictions on access to source code and algorithms, for: privacy, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, algorithmic bias/discrimination, financial regulation, tax collection, health, environment, competition law etc. It was explained that data should not be treated as a commodity and our rights should flow with the data. There was consensus among the panelists that the trade rules are already out of date compared to the fast-moving technology and would not solve the access, connectivity and affordability challenges in the region.

    • The ‘free flow of data’ narrative should not be considered the default norm. Our data is not a trade commodity and it should not be treated as such. Privacy is a fundamental human right; thus it should flow alongside our data throughout the data life cycle. There should be check and balances to the free flow of data.

    • Our rights should flow alongside our data throughout the data life cycle.

    • People should be in control over their data, no matter where they are and no matter who holds it. Data ownership implies that people can sell away their fundamental rights, including privacy. Thus, we need comprehensive data protection laws and other regulatory mechanisms that are designed to safeguard people, not international businesses nor state control over their citizens. But we also need regulations that encourage healthy competition, not data monopolies.

  • Babu Ram Aryal

  • Bart Hogeveen

  • Ben

  • Benjz Gerard Sevilla

  • Bianca

    • agree with tying in with Global IGF

    • More importantly, the idea is to integrate the YIGF participants as much as possible to the main session. They might not be able to participate confidently in the APrIGF, but they would bring their observations back to their small-scale group discussion. It plants a seed and a path for gradual progress.

    • If go one step further, can also incorporate encouragement of youth to participate in panels to add extra points to the workshop. This mechanism would encourage workshop organisers to add a youth perspective to their workshop.

      Agree on that they should be treated equally as other participants during the conference

    • Also wanted to establish a sustainable initiative and common ground to exchange and to come up with consensus, for example the establishment of an Asia Pacific regional research network focused on child online safety.

  • Bong Macalalad

    • For me, we should be able to resolve access first because too many people still do not have access to the internet – the rural poor, PWDs who are not provided for with appropriate assistive devices, and many others like students and ordinary workers. For example, in the education sector alone, where because of the pandemic, schools are still closed, and learning is limited to poor internet limited sessions, and printed modules left to the responsibility of the parents and students to fulfill. Inclusion is the major issue, until we resolve that, the rest remain to be the issue of the privileged and connected. But that is not to say that we should not address sustainability and trust. just that we focus more on inclusion. This is also to reduce the digital divide.

    • Internet education should be part of the life skills training since we also need to teach young people to protect themselves from harm in the internet, and not just its beneficial use.

    • Actually it’s not just the weaponization of surveillance but even of one policy fits all approach to the pandemic. The high handed approach have shown how government officials, particularly in the frontline – police, community officials – could go beyond their mandate in implementing what they thought were right. Some minors suffered corporal punishments for violating curfew, while other people were charged with cyber libel for questioning the local officials’ response to the pandemic. Luckily most of them were thrown out by prosecutors or the courts, but not after the hassle of being arrested, published on social media, and detained for a time. Worst, government-paid trolls extol these kind of actions as necessary for discipline and compliance to pandemic control.

  • Brent Carey

  • Brian Mangi

    • I noted that the main thematic tracks represent the pressing issues internet governance must address in the region. For the Pacific, the issue of trust is beyond pressing, especially when trust issues on the internet are becoming more of a common occurrence.

    • I couldn’t agree more. I find this model of discussion to be very mind-opening and engaging, especially when the participants are accorded the preference to choose the sessions that are aligned with either their interests, experience, or both. The only downside is when multiple sessions of interest happen at the same time, which causes a bit of a dilemma of which session to sit in at.

    • I noted that Meaningful (Connectivity) Access is the ultimate aim that our local economies must strive for, and whilst this has been achieved in mostly developed economies, it is still a challenge for the Asia Pacific region. As such policies and legislative supports that push for access and inclusion, are of prime importance with the use of a multistakeholder approach when tackling the challenges we face to achieve Meaningful (Connectivity) Access.

    • The discussion on Emerging Technologies made me realize that any form of technology, be it traditional or emerging, is a double-edged sword, that can be used for good in the hands of good people, or used for bad purposes in the hands of people with bad intentions. I therefore think, Emerging Technology will close or widen the digital divide, especially when accessibility parameters are not equal between economies that have little to no internet access, and those that have meaningful access. At the helm of Emerging Technologies to close the gap are the digital skills to use or operate them. When people have the digital skills to operate an Emerging Technology, there will be so many interesting use cases we can churn out of any form of Emerging Technology.

    • From the discussions in a session that looks into this area, the main challenge to finding the right balance in professional development is the perceived risks and promised rewards presented to a workforce. Obviously, the path with the least resistance will always be chosen, which means minimal risk for its corresponding reward. However, there are others who value the high-risk and high-reward model, and these are ones that definitely reap the rewards and valuable opportunities presented to them.

    • Encryption is crucial when collecting and storing biometric data because generative AI based on biometrics requires a lot of raw data to feed into Machine Learning algorithms. This means transparent terms and conditions and policies and even frameworks must be put in place so that people understand that Biometric AI needs their data, and at the same time, be confident that the storage of these very personalized data is highly protected.

    • I learned that it’s sad that net freedom is always at the mercy of the state and whether is based on fair or unfair reasons, the state always has the legal upper hand to control the access of the internet to its citizens or a group of them. The case of West Papua and the Civil Society Experience is a sad one and I hope for the best for them.

    • The Asia Pacific region presents its own set of challenges in Bridging the Communications Divide, the main one of them being geography. Therefore there is no one-size-fits-all solution for this, but a multi-communication model that encompasses all forms of communication technologies on terrestrial, maritime and aviation connection points. There will be more dependence on satellite communication, especially when the cost of launching (and maintaining) satellites into space are reduced with advancing technology.

  • byoungil oh

  • Can Udomcharoenchaikit

  • Charlotte Fang Hendro

    • There was a noticeable dichotomy between how different countries currently tackle the protection of youth against online abuses such as intimate image abuse. Some comparative examples given by the panellists are:

      Indonesia’s Electronic Information and Transactions Law (from Ms Avida Veda’s panel)- which has focused on on criminalising the actual content, to the point where the responsibility is often placed on the victims for posting such explicit content in the first place.

      On the otherhand, in Japan – Ms Yamaguchi’s PhD studies interviewed instances of women posting out of free will – who may even feel empowered by the fact they can choose what parts of themselves that they show.

      This wasn’t a issue that was delved into in the session, but I think it is imporant that these cultural differences are acknowledged, as governments must consider how to balance the protection of victims of online abuse while also allowing for sexual autonomy for others. I wonder if, realistically, it would even be viable to have international collaboration for this, or whether this issue be left to individual countries to decide.

    • I believe that the current 3 policy questions on trust – as provided during townhall discussions – are not fully reflective of the concerns that the younger generations may have regarding trust.

      While the current policy questions for trust are valid and legitimate concerns on how we can foster and broaden the scope of trust especially for less accessible communities, what was lacking from this discussion was the considersation of the many youth that already place significant trust in technology as digital natives.

      I would have liked to hear more acknowlegement about the power that governing and commercial bodies already hold through youth’s trust in technologies, placing importance on REGOGNITION and ACCOUNTABILITY that product developers and governmentment should be held by, to ensure a e-environment where youth are able to feel and be safe, and be allowed to enjoy technology.

  • Charmaine Lo Kam Yin

    • The advance of technology has undoubtedly brings convenience and benefits to society. However, according to PwC’s Global State of Information Security Survey dated 2015, the cybercrime market worth $114 billion, which is bigger than the cocaine market ($85 billion, quote from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2011). Therefore, I believe it is necessary to evaluate the Cyber Maturity Framework of organizations which provide new technologies prior launching /on a regular basis. The Cyber Maturity Framework consists of four capability areas: Respond, Identify, Detect and Protect).

      Assesses the organisation’s ability to respond and recover from external and internal attacks against its systems and data.

      Assesses the organisation’s ability to understanding the threats and appropriately manage the associated security risk to systems, assets, data and capabilities.

      Detect :
      Assesses the organisation’s ability to detect external and internal attacks of varying sophistication against its systems and data.

      Assesses the organisations ability to implement security controls to reduce the risk of threats being realised (e.g. loss of data or system outage).

    • I believe partnerships and collaborations between different companies and regulators may help the underserve communities and regions to catch up with the pace of digital boom.
      For instance, Ant Financial (Alibaba Group’s mobile payment affiliate) decided to partner with Touch N’ Go to develop their e-wallet rather than break in with Alipay in Maylasia. This can ensure healthy business synergy in both companies. Also, the regulators may consult the fintech companies when building new regulations to ensure the law is down to earth and can be implemented while balancing the business development and cybersecurity.


    • Maybe it will be more comprehensive to add “age” as a variable factor like gender? For example, I think social media platforms Twitter and Facebook and online political events provide more opportunities for the youth to express their opinions and participate in such events. Not only in terms of politics, but also influences the youth culture, making youth subculture attracts more people. Especially in China, we can see a rapid growth of youth subculture texts. Typical examples are meme and idol culture.

    • Some theories of philosophers indicate that the logics of technology heavily influence our traditional logic, preparing us human for digital logic. So, maybe be we can talk about some changes in the definition of our humans, like the studies of “embody” in media and technology.

  • Chen-Yi Tu

    • [Privacy and data protection are critical issues now, especially as they may come into conflict with freedom of expression]

      Is this trying to say “right of privacy” as “universal human right”? If yes, then the correct reference should be Article 13 of 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The freedom of speech is in Article 19. Conflict between privacy and freedom of expression usually discuss in a context of press freedom. I would suggest to frame privacy as enabler of freedom of expression, as in Article 17-19 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

  • Cherie Lagakali

  • Chia Chen Lin

    • Multistakeholder approach only works if there’s full and active participation of every stakeholders during Internet governance discussions. It is crucial that we ensure harmonisation between the ‘technical dialogues’ and ‘policy dialogues’. Some of the challenges the Internet is presenting are due to the lack of cohesion (or discussion) between the stakeholders.

      With regards to governments and their role in internet governance, we the various stakeholders from different backgrounds need to be more proactive in informing our own governments with regards to the issues in today’s internet and how they could be resolved.

  • Chris Buckridge

    • There are different roles that government, industry (both small and large actors) and other stakeholder groups can play in promoting the adoption of standards. It’s also important to be very clear about the arguments for such adoption and how they are targeted for most effect.

  • Daphne Smithers

    • As discussed in WS 83, Public Libraries are ideal places for Internet access where users can be guided in a secure, inclusive, impartial, free and non-threatening environment. In New Zealand, for example, free Digital Literacy/Skills sessions are commonly held in Public Libraries on specific topics or for marginalised groups. Communities in small developing nations can be empowered through provision of Internet and information access in Libraries.

  • Daria Stepovaia

  • Dawen Obed

  • Debarati Das

    • The word ‘legitimate’ can mean something that ‘conforms to the law’. In many countries (such as India), several consensual and harmless acts online are classified as ‘obscene’, ‘seditious’ etc., and so, ‘illegitimate’ under the law. Can ‘legitimate’ be replaced with ‘ethical’?

    • Here, too, can ‘legitimate’ be replaced with ‘ethical’ because various ethical uses of the internet are wrongfully and unconstitutionally classified as illegitimate under the law in countries like India – such as, laws on obscenity, sedition, unlawful activities etc.

  • Debora

    • The issue of diversity and accessibility (under the Inclusion track) intersect within the context of the “digital language divide” as language affects users’ experience of the Internet – it guides who can access and meaningfully participate in online spaces, what content/information we access (and thus, which knowledge we reproduce), whom we speak to, and how we behave in online communities. Inequality in representation in different languages online also shapes how we understand our place in the world. To support greater linguistic diversity on the Internet, tech organizations (profit and nonprofit) running search engines and online encyclopedias need to amplify their translation initiatives/solutions and governments need to develop policies and programs that support and facilitate online linguistic diversity and multilingualism.

    • I suggest the expansion of the notion of diversity and accessibility here to include the issue of linguistic representation online.

    • Hate speech intersects with disinformation and misinformation when the content of hate speech is based on non-factual information – which is often the case in the APAC region. Amid gaps in hate speech legislation in the region, bottom-up, human-centered approach to counter online hate speech, such as using human experts to conduct fact-checking could address issues with automated content moderation which most online platforms rely on. These issues include the difficulty in identifying hate speech content across multiple languages and differing social and cultural contexts (the context-dependent nature of hate speech) and biases in machine moderation.

      While fact-checking that relies on human experts is a more reliable approach, the volume and speed with which online hate speech is produced and disseminated make the effort seem unsustainable. Another issue is the reach of fact-checking output – Is the public aware of such an initiative? Who visits factchecking sites? Which intermediaries disseminate the fact-checking output?

      To address the second issue, it is important that fact-checking organizations form partnerships with online networking platforms, the local media organizations – national and regional, and other relevant intermediaries to scale the fact-checking effort. Further, more research needs to be done to best bring together manual and automated approaches to fact-checking and content moderation toward human-in-the-loop system/method.

      These bottom-up approaches need to be accompanied by advocacy efforts targeting regulatory changes at the national and regional levels. The recommendations of the 2020 Asia-Pacific Regional Forum on Hate Speech, Social Media, and Minorities could serve as a basis that clarifies the role and responsibility of different stakeholders in countering hate speech and provide examples of relevant multistakeholder frameworks for monitoring hate speech.

  • deepa

  • Dhruv Sivakumar

    • The current hegemony of tech corporations which belong to the global west must be examined, and whether they push countries in the Asia-Pacific region to a state of dependency on such corporations. Does the need to break this power dynamic push for fragmentation?

    • I certainly agree that persons with disabilities are more likely to be left behind during rescue efforts at the time of calamities. The app ecosystem in the disaster management domain still predominantly depend on the use of the touch interface, since all smartphones use that as the primary method of user interaction. It is tough to cater to all disabilities since it is a vast spectrum in itself. However, enabling more methods of interaction such as voice, the use of inbuilt motion sensors, use of physical buttons and integrating peripheral devices such as smartwatches can certainly help in bridging this gap in accessibility.

  • Dollapak

    • the name of the program is mislead

      the discussion is interesting but it does not touch the point about what is the hack

      actually, I understand about we will show about idea or prototype of “hacking” government or surveillance. but we just talk about platform for collect violent data.

  • Don

    • With respect to Universal Acceptance…

      The Internet DNS has already provided support for IDNs and they have been in production since 2009.  What needs to happen now, both in respect to IDNs and all new TLDs, is that the developers of computer programmes and systems need to catch up so that they take advantage of these new facilities.

      Readers, including businesses, governments and civil society participants, should make sure that their own systems are UA Ready – that is that they can accept, validate, store, process and display all domain names equally.   This is an issue not just at the top level, but at second and subsequent levels as well.

      They should also encourage their suppliers and the providers of services they use to become UA Ready.

      [NB: This editing application is an example of one that does NOT accept IDN e-mail addresses]




    • Combined efforts from public, private and community sectors is needed to create sustainable initiatives to solve issues of affordable accessibility and digital literacy for all.   Effort is also necessary to support local languages in all facets.  Developments are also necessary is safe and affordable electronic payment facilities to allow everyone to facilitate sustainable activities.

    • A call to action here would be beneficial, calling on Spectrum Managers within each community to de-licence WiFi spectrum.


    • Satish, either will be fine, in my view.

    • “Trust” is a challenging term because it’s so broad.   When I first read this, I thought how can we ensure that justice is served when our trust is broken by naughty people?   Communities adopting similar legal frameworks for addressing scams and allowing cross border enforcement would be a way of building Trust.   If you order a book from me, and I don’t deliver, then you should be able to easily pursue remedies.

      But there’s also the Trust of accuracy of information.   And the Trust that the information that I transmit is secure between me and its intended recipient.

  • Don Hollander

  • Don Rodney Junio

  • Doreen Leona

  • Dr A Kanaka Durga

  • Dr Vishwas Gupta

    • Proper accress to Internet is still a dream. Hardly 10% residents have proper access to Internet in Asia. In India it is 50% still. I found no discussion and solution over the issue here in draft. Exclusive inclusion of all the stakeholders is required to solve the issues. We are in need of some sophisticated technology at most affordable rates to increase the access of Internet to the bottom of pyramid.

  • Dr.N.Sudha Bhuvaneswari

  • Dustin Sampang

    • The Internet has become a place for people to make a living. One of the platforms for this is video sharing. Popular sites such as YouTube has served as the platform for content creators to generate their own income by means of their own videos, typically funded by ad revenue. What creates issue with this is that there are content creators who rely on the content of other people, adhering to “fair use” as their legal protection. Despite such protection, this does not stop creators to file lawsuits citing copyright infringement. Theft of intellectual property is also an issue that reaps the same consequences. This legal conflict is a threat to the thriving entertainment industry, as well as economic prospects for individuals. Therefore, a clear and detailed criteria on what constitutes as theft of intellectual property should be imposed.

  • Edmon Chung

    • in WS59 a theme emerged around the importance of understanding the dynamics of diversity, in that it changes over time on different issues and as such discussion evolves through stages. That diversity is not an absolute or finite value, and that cultural diversity is highly relevant for the AP region in the global IG context, especially in the development of rough consensus (i.e. to avoid dominant cultural bias causing undue influence over results of discussions given cultures in AP’s tendency towards deference to authorities)

    • WS57 discussed the growing importance of investigating illegal wildlife trade online, and the effectiveness of cross jurisdictional processes are becoming increasingly critical. At the same time though, privacy and other user rights must not be compromised. Industry code of practices are important beyond legislation.

    • WS57 highlighted the merging physical space with cyberspace in the sense that the internet and ecommerce is having a direct impact on wildlife and the environment, (poaching supported by demand from convenience of ecommerce). At the same time ecommerce and elearning can support rural economies to discourage poaching. the SDGs and their interrelation with the Internet and Internet Governance is exemplified by supportive policies and technologies deployed for wildlife conservation (especially as it intersects with rural populations and least developed areas in the proximity of endangered species)

  • Edmon Chung

    • Universal Acceptance is a part of a bigger issue of making sure that the Internet’s Critical Infrastructure protocols evolve over time in an open standards manner. For the synthesis document, I would suggest that we add text suggesting that: Universal Acceptance of Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) and Email Address Internationalization (EAI) for systems online is a matter of priority not only for ensuring that Asia Pacific users can utilize their native language to navigate the Internet, but also as an imperative for the continued evolution of the core Internet infrastructure protocols, including the enhancement of scalability (e.g. IPv6), security (e.g. DNSSEC) and multilingual capability (e.g. IDN) of such protocols.

    • using of AIs regulating Digital Economies

  • Elanto Wijoyono

  • Ellen Kusuma

  • Elliott

    • On the impact of the GDPR on the APAC region. Many APAC countries are implementing privacy & data protection laws directly informed by the GDPR (see Indonesia’s proposed law and Australia’s upcoming amendments to the Privacy Act). Very welcome to see this GDPR influence as the digital economy grows faster in APAC than any other region in the world!

    • Particularly on the note of underserved and rural regions, who currently don’t have full access to the digital economy; what happens once the economies of scale which power the non-digital economy cease? What happens when the balance tips in favour of digital transactions, supply chain management and inventory control? Will the non-digital solutions cease and leave the underserved communities behind?

      It’s the job of the internet community to make sure that these communities are not left behind on the march to innovation.

  • Engineer Md. Safaet Hossain

  • Etuate Cocker

  • Farha Diba

  • Farheen Jia

    • Effective and achievable circular economy policy frameworks are crucial for digital environmental sustainability due to the rapid growth of the electronics sector and its associated environmental challenges. As digital technologies become increasingly integral to our lives, the production and disposal of electronic devices contribute to resource depletion, electronic waste, energy consumption, and pollution. Circular economy policies ensure that electronic products are designed for longevity, repairability, and recyclability, reducing the strain on resources, minimizing waste, and curbing emissions. By encouraging responsible consumption, efficient resource use, and innovative recycling practices, these frameworks are essential for balancing the digital world’s expansion with the urgent need to preserve and protect our environment.

  • Fasha Rouf

  • Felicia Yunike

    • The 1st policy question is too broad and theoretical. It would be better to make comparative approach between de facto and de jure of the national laws to assess its own interpretation in accordance with its provisions. On the other hand, there is a possibility that national law is influenced by conventions or international agreement which subsequently established universally-applied principles. If I were to suggest, the terms “regulations” could be replaced with principles we internationally adopt as a matter of comparison.

    • The 3rd policy question should be narrowed down a little bit as it may create confusion such as the role of government in the protection of human rights online based on what? the regulations? Please point out a context you want to refer to, since I believe that there are various cases that involve the governments with different measures. For example, there is a legitimacy of surveillance under certain conditions (proportionality, necessity, etc).

  • Forest Atkinson

    • Human rights are by universal.  The phrasing “especially the different balance required at different stages of development” should be deleted, as it seems to suggest that the importance attached to human rights varies depending on the stage of development and it is acceptable to trade off cybersecurity against human rights.

  • Gaya

  • Gaya

  • Gaya

    • The most important thing about regulation is that they have to be rights respecting. The recent emergency ordinance on Fake news in Malaysia and Social media rules in India are cause for serious concern. Users are unable to understand what amounts to a violation and this reduces their ability to have a trusted internet and a predictable one.

  • Gayatri Khandhadai

  • Georges Tauanearu

  • Geuna Kim

    • As we all know, AI technology is definitely redefining our world now. This session highlighted a wide range of topics on AI, such as sovereignty and inclusion.
      I was particularly impressed by the proposal of open-sourcing LLM (Large Language Models) as one of the strategies to increase accessibility for underrepresented groups. Of course, it would be best if all countries could produce their own large language model, but there are practical limitations. The internet started with a few, but now it can be considered the most successful example of open-source technology everyone uses and develops. It was an excellent session that presented the direction of AI technology for everyone.

  • Glenn McKnight

  • Gomer Padong

    • There is a need to recognize that connecting the unconnected and resolving the digital divide are still the main problems faced by many developing countries in Asia Pacific. In this context, complementary connectivity initiatives have been offered as solutions and creating an ecosystem, an enabling environment for supporting the development and scaling up of sustainable complementary connectivity models need to be a central part of sustainability discussions.

      Addressing sustainability challenges of complementary connectivity initiatives require a combination of data-driven impact measurement, effective communication strategies, stakeholder engagement, as well as policy advocacy with the private sector and governments.

      Given the different contexts and levels of development of communities of Asia Pacific, there is no “one size fits all” in sustainability of complementary connectivity initiatives. The development of such needs to be iterated given the nature of diverse geographical and socio-cultural elements and interrelated components to consider, including but not limited to policy and regulation, infrastructure, as well as social and economic resources.

      With the various challenges even, “it takes a village” to support complementary connectivity initiatives ‘with shared purpose.’ This further requires an agile and adaptive management with flexible financing support. Also, the promotion of different technological solutions adapting to changing customer needs, culturally appropriate services and billing models and community ownership in terms of operations, management and responses to community needs and preferences contributes to a collaborative and open ecosystem needed to address the sustainability agenda. The collaborative and open ecosystem also requires cooperation from local authorities, national governments, industry players and possible legislative measures, also given the extreme costs of interconnectivity and solutions rely on teamwork of local, subregional and national stakeholders.

      Measuring the impact of community networks is also important. By showcasing the tangible benefits and positive outcomes of such, we can make a compelling case for governments and resource institutions to support sustainable models of community networks and complementary connectivity initiatives. An M&E system based on IP traffic and other related data must be developed and supported to measure impact in terms of online behavior, which in turn may inform overall impact.

      Legislation of favorable policies supportive to complementary connectivity initiatives may also be a solution given some experiences on reluctance of governments to allow smaller carriers even with 7-year track record and 100% uptime.

      There are various experiences of evolving sustainability models such as the ISEA project linking community networks to social enterprise and local economic development which needs to be further documented, supported and scaled-up. Emerging sustainability strategies of four pilot community networks in different value chains (coffee, organic vegetables, crafts, agro-ecological/ cultural/ educational tours) are towards enhancing efficiency, productivity and incomes beyond project timeframes.

    • There is also an interest in establishing a community of practice on sustainability and social impact of connectivity initiatives. There is an initiative of ISEA, APC and Angels of Impact through the Technological Innovations for Sustainable Development Platform and we invite interested organizations to join.

  • Gunela Astbrink

  • Hailey YANG

  • Hamna Noor

  • Hanyu Yang

    • Internet Governance normally related with the “subject and rules”, it is necessary to sort out who will be get involved in the issue and what rules will be applicable. And more ,it usually expressed by different stakeholders of the internet governance which will related with technology and public policy. Indeed the solution also will be solved by the combination of technologies and policies. In particularly, the technology is the foundation of the internet or cyberspace, and the activities of main parties、 the foundation of the policies also based on the technologies. In addition, the internet governance get the different stakeholders get involved and became globalized which is necessary to consider the factors time and pay attention to the changes in the internet governance system.

  • Harish CHowdhary

    • eUniversal Acceptance issue including E-mail Address Internationalization and IDNs is very Important for AP region as Next 500 million Internet users are from AP region itself.
      Ascii based Internet is barrier to those who are not familiar with ASCII based languages,in getting online.A multilingual internet is useful for all so that every one can have the benefits of this marvelous technology.
      We should also come together to solve issues related in to Universal Acceptance i.e. Speech to text search in local languages

  • Harry Sufehmi

    • Once connected to the Internet – people will use it. Mothers can sell from their homes. Builders learning new methods via Youtube. Farmers selling directly to customers. And so on.

      Once connected to the Internet.

      There needs to be regulation mandating open access to Internet infrastructure. So it can’t be monopolized, and ensures competition.

    • To be sustainable, the government need to have + enforce a strict policy against anti-competitive behaviours.

      For example, in Indonesia there have been backlashes from merchants who are fed up with the high rate of commissions from platforms; which stays high, and exactly the same between platforms.

      The high rate of commissions forces them to raise their prices – which in turn causes their customers to run away to their competitors.

      This in turn will destroy the gig economy itself. This anti-competitive behaviours is simply unsustainable in the long run.

    • The keyword is indeed “collaboration”

      Governments need to ensure literacy & critical thinking in the education curriculum, create laws that targets the hoax actors & their financiers (instead of the victims / consumers) – and make sure platforms’ algorithm does not amplify hoaxes/ other kind of bad contents in the name of engagement.

      Civil societies need to raise awareness in people that hoax is a serious problem. It kills. It causes people to lose money. A lot of people still does not realize that this is a problem.

      Once people realize this, then the ideal scenario will happen : people themselves will counter the hoax actors.

    • Yes, it’s field day for bad actors because there are so much personal data, even medical data, available to harvest – due to lack of IT security and Data Protection regulations.

      Many people already have their private data exposed to the public.

      It’s not just a theoretical scenario anymore.

    • A strong IT security & Data Protection regulations is simply a must.

    • A good IT security regulations can avoid this situation. Lack of it will cause this.

      Healthcare system vendors must be held accountable to security holes in their products. Incentivized to make it better, and deterred from making compromises in term of security.

      HCW (healthcare workers) and other personnels with access to healthcare systems must be trained in the topic of digital security awareness.

      Deployment and usage of 2FA tokens must be a norm.

      DRC and secure, automated backup; must be a norm.

    • We need to have a Green Computing certification scheme, such as the well-known Energy Star: https://www.energystar.gov/about

      It must be robust, covering the whole spectrum of internet & computing, including datacenters and each of its components.

      There are levels of its certification, such level 1 for minimum compliance, and level 5 for complete compliance.
      Therefore enabling a phased approach to the ideal condition.

    • This is spot-on – I have been using email and mailing lists since the nineties ; yet I can’t help feeling that I’m still missing some things from time to time.

      We need a structured communication facility.

      A forum with threading feature, such as Hacker News, might be a good idea.

    • We need to realize that “freedom of expression” does not mean “freedom of amplification”

      Currently, controversial contents are amplified by the platforms’ algorithm – while the balancing views are denied exposure, due to its content that’s tend to use disarming words.

      This is a serious issue, an unlevel playing field.

      Both sides must be given equal exposure by the platforms, not just one of them.

  • Hiro Hotta

    • Whether/How Internet is defined as “Critical National Infrastructure” is different from country to country. In addition, the Internet is a cross-border infrastructure that is critical at least in a sense. So, I think it’s better to chage “Critical National Infrastructure” into “infrastructure based on the Internet”?

    • Vanuatu is ranked as one of the top (potential) sufferers in
      WorldRiskIndex. Countries/territories in Asia/Pacific region
      are among the tops as well.
      Disasters are unavoidable. Internet accessibility during after
      disasters is essential for the human lives. Preparation for
      Natural Disasters was a well-attended session.

      The above should be touched in the synthesis paper as it is
      one of the very important issues in AP region.

  • Hirotaka Nakajima

  • Hong Xue

  • Hong Xue

  • Hong Xue

  • Hriday Ch. Sarma

  • https://comment.rigf.asia/asia-pacific-regional-internet-governance-forum-2016-taipei-synthesis-document-draft-v2/

  • https://comment.rigf.asia/asia-pacific-regional-internet-governance-forum-2016-taipei-synthesis-document-draft-v2/

  • https://rekli.com/

  • Hubert Chen

    • I believe that maintaining cultural diversity online is an important issue, but what I want to ask is that is there any active action we can take online to keep cultures from disappearing. The internet itself is a kind of powerful and new culture, which is actually putting minor culture on the edge of extiction. So I think there should be something we can do actively.

  • Huy Pham Gia

    • Paragraph 56 beautifully encapsulates the essence of the principle of inclusivity. In a world that’s rapidly advancing with technologies like AI, 5G, and blockchain, it is absolutely vital that we ensure no one is left behind. The commitment to inclusivity means that factors like background, gender, disability, or social standing should never be the reason for anyone to be at a disadvantage. The mention of the ongoing challenge of meaningful access, particularly for marginalized communities, highlights the urgency of the situation. To truly harness the potential of these technologies for the betterment of society, it’s crucial to engage in open and collaborative discussions involving all stakeholders. Only by working together and focusing on infrastructure and access for all can we unlock the full promise of these emerging technologies for the benefit of everyone, promoting socio-economic development across the board.

  • hvale vale

  • Iqbal Ahmed

  • Ivana Saberon

    • We represent the voice of the youth. As we all know, the youth composes most of the internet users in this generation and that we are also the future of the internet, we hold a substantial responsibility in shaping the platform in the present for the betterment of tomorrow. And so we believe that a representative from the youth participants should be given the opportunity to partake a place in the workshop panels, and to voice out the youth perspectives regarding the themes and sub-themes that will be discussed in the forums.

  • Izumi Aizu

  • Jac

  • James Ah Wai

    • From our end in the Pacific, yes totally agreed in raising awareness so that everyone using internet will understand the threats, challenges and business opportunities that comes with the internet and at the same time aware of some proper and respectful way of using the internet platform within their respective roles.
      As for me being both involved in the Government and community so its best to use both connection to make the multitakesholder approach at national level a success. Can put together Government resources and community participation to build guidelines for a safer internet for everyone in the community.

    • In my view Governments are the victim of the social media contents on the internet. Have been working for the government of Samoa for 20 years and have seen abuses nowadays with the introduction of social media up their game to a another level. With freedom of expression and human rights people are not afraid to put anything on the internet despite some violent contents and misleading information as they can create their own fake news that suits their agenda. There is no control on verification of any information before uploading it.
      Hate speech, abusive language and misinformation is very disturbing when using these platforms. Some people tend to pour hate and fake news to stir up peace in Economies and will lead to disputes and lost of Trust to leadership. Some of the abuse have actually go beyond the limit, where it started with politics but now aims at families and children of the victims which is my BIG question is where does freedom of speech and human Rights DRAW THE LINE…Thus the RIGHTS support the Abuser who is free to make fake/hate news and disturb the peace within the community or the poor VICTIM..
      There were times our Govt was tempted to block social media especially Facebook but we have recognized its important role for genuine family connection around the Globe. We can’t underestimate how the social media platform have make life easier in bringing communication and accessibility to our home and roofs and many other benefits to our daily life but we have to understand that we need to use it with respect and its not something to bring shame and hurt to other human beings.
      We have moved to review our legislation’s and the government have reintroduced our criminal libel law to protect the victims from such disrespectful acts by some. The only challenge about the Act we can’t prosecute actions done from overseas but only contents that were uploaded locally.We have now in the pipeline of establishing a new Digital Transformation Authority that will oversees important changes in technology, as well as monitoring Government ICT services to meet the standard and security required. It will also through this Authority to make sure that Government critical information is protected and secure safely.

    • I was hoping if all countries that are now registered under the Global Internet Governance Forum can formalized a convention to safe guard the internet use. I know there is a Budapest convention for cyber crime by the Council of Europe (185). It now serves as the binding International instrument to fight against cyber crime.
      It provides guidelines for any country developing comprehensive national legislation against Cybercrime and as a framework for international cooperation between State Parties to this treaty.
      In saying this, we now have Non-European countries like USA, Japan and Australia as well as our neighbors Tonga who have signed and ratified the convention. I believe its a good platform for better collaboration and investigation if the perpetrator resides within these Countries or Regions.

  • James Boorman

    • Cybersecurity is focused on best efforts to make things more secure, without ever achieving 100% security. The goal of a truly secure Internet is an aspirational target. There needs to be increased effort on developing, implementing and revising minimum standards and good practices that address identified key risks for end users, organisations, critical infrastructure, nations and regions. This will require a multi stakeholder approach to identify and address key risks, it’s not just a problem for the network operators and IT professionals. Capacity building efforts need to consider: cybersecurity strategy and policy; cybersecurity culture and society; cybersecurity education, training and skills; legal and regulatory frameworks; and standards, organisations and technologies.

      National level leadership and dedicated, ongoing funding will be required for measurable and sustainable capacity building to deliver a more secure Internet, strengthening every link in the global cyber security chain.

  • Jan Jacob Jansalin

    • With the possibility of the splinternet there should be a call for island nations (governments) to invest in submarine cable infrastructure and not just leave it to the private sector. To a certain extent this improves the backhaul and the bandwidth capacity and significantly contributes to inclusion to less developeed island (provinces) but also enables redundancies to other adjacent nations making bilateral, multilateral nations better.

    • Could there be some sort of a neutral fact-checking website that is focused on APAC that is wikipedia-like that is led by APrIGF participants where multistakeholders can equally comment on it and yet their identities would be traceable for accountability. The results will show a spectrum of results from various perspectives not just a binary view on truth so people can be more informed. Also the results can be shareable to popular websites with understandable graphics for easy interpretation.

  • Jeff Garae

    • The current situation in the Pacific especially in Vanuatu is the lack of digital information contents, digital access, skills and information availability for various purposes that suits Vanuatu’s social and economical population. While there are now some implementation to spread access coverage, tailored information/contents for Vanuatu.
      In addition, creating user/business avenues and demand-driven access to motivate more use of Internet apart from just social media, email access and sms, etc. which could encourage local, regional and international access and connections are ideal to increase access and empowerment in the pacific.

    • I fully agree with Kenn Yee on the multi-stakeholder and collaborative approach outreach and capacity-building efforts for internet governance.
      The Pacific should get more involved in this approach as I think it will be the most suitable and working model to fit the geographical and diverse cultural existing in the pacific. And with the rapid pace and technological shift involving cloud technologies and services, the pacific needs to step up, evolve and utilise the Internet for their benefits and greater wider Asia Pacific region.

    • Online Privacy and Protection (or data protection) is a new concept for people in the pacific especially in Vanuatu. People in the rural areas of Vanuatu who daily use Social Media for communication generally do not know what is online privacy, data privacy/protection and even the concept of protecting personal data/information. The “value” of personal data online does not raise a concerning alarm to most end-users in the pacific. And with the unregulated nature of social media platforms, users do not take a step back to self-evaluate them on what/how their daily online presence are like.

    • There are several points/inputs with Cybersecurity and APrIGF:

      1. I think the opening sentence/statement is very good and states well what cybersecurity in the Asia Pacific region. Highlighting the words: “…growing concern, developing economies, security measures, online economies and emerging technologies…” really expresses the need to address cybersecurity gaps with multi-stakeholders security collaboration and partnership approaches with capacity building and promoting cybersecurity especially in the Pacific.

      2. This is a proposal to add to the APrIGFG 2019 sessions: more dialogue and discussion around addressing cybersecurity gaps with (1) more emphasis on security research inputs from industry research centers, academic research centers and governmental research centers, (2) innovation technologies within Cybersecurity domain, (3) law enforcement approaches, and (4) introduction of security techniques and methodologies which could help protect end-users help themselves over the internet, (5) Cyber Security standards such as ISO 27000 security Series standards, etc.

      Elaborating on how law enforcement play effective role in ensuring a safe Internet environment for users, existing collaborations with law enforcement research centers and agencies have indicated working relationships with security companies, academic institutions and financial institutions. Such working partnership are indicating positive way forward to addressing cybersecurity issues which the Asia Pacific region. Hence, encouraging the Pacific region to establishing partnership with law enforcement would be a bonus to their capacity building strategies.

      3. Encryption Standards and regulations. This input is more of a general input, where I am hoping to include discussion and inputs for the Asia Pacific region.

      4. I am supporting other speakers and people who commented on inviting more technical people to attend and create more session. I am not sure how much relevance this would be to the whole Internet governance forum (especially around management, logistics, etc.), but including technical work shop sessions such as Security tool training, and mini cyber security challenges especially for YIGF and pacific attendees would be a capacity building suggestion.

      5. Finally, my observation for the Pacific on a way forward with cyber security is to encourage effective partnership with security firms, institutions, academic institutions, law enforcement, ISPs, regulators. Finally learn from developed nations who are implementing effective cyber security strategies.

  • Jenna

    • This year, there is high and active youth participation in APrIGF, which reveals that the youth community in Asia-Pacific is growing robustly. Young people in this age are digital natives, therefore, it is essential for the community to include their voice in the policy-making process, and their opinions are actually beneficial for policy-making.

      WS 6 is basically a workshop initiated by youth, moderated by youth and for youth. Workshop like this not only helps open a door to Internet Governance for youth, but also helps get their voice heard. In order to help widening their horizon and exposure in Internet Governance, and to include more of their opinons, it is suggested to include at least one youth speaker on every workshop, so that the youth perspectives on every topics or issues can be considered.

    • Social media has an increasing influence on Internet users nowadays, where we highly rely on it to receive different kinds of information, from international news to life updates of your friends. However, there are no strict rules on these social media platform, which means the reliability of this information is questionable. Corporations try to establish the community committees to review reports received regarding fraud, fake news, bullying case, etc. However, due to various factors, including gaps in capacity and knowledge, culture differences, languages, personal judgement, value, and emotion. bias is generated and the core issues in these problems are usually not addressed. Therefore, it will be appreciated if these social media platforms can adopt emerging technologies such as AI as part of this report reviewing process, which can help eliminate bias generated by humans during the decision-making process. With an auditing process in the algorithm, it is believed that it can help improve the effectiveness in resolving issues related to social media and help eliminated bias generated by AI too.

    • Encryption is the foundation of human right online that every Internet users deserve to have. Without encryption, we have no privacy. We have the right to express freely both physical and on the Internet, which our opinions should not be intervened or censored by any authorities or being manipulated or interpreted in a way that is beyond our initial thoughts. Therefore, it is important to ensure encryption is universally applied on the Internet, in order to protect the universal value and standards towards human rights, where the Internet can always serve as a space for us to fight for our rights even if we are experiencing unfairness in certain situations in the reality.

    • Fake news is a big concern during COVID-19, it is understandable for some social media platform to establish some mechanism to filter out “inaccurate” information with some fact-checking system. With the “831 Incident in Hong Kong” example raised during the Townhall session on 30 September 2020, I believe our community should pay more attention on how such enterprises are reviewing their content and how they are influenced by the government bodies of different countries. As it is another form of violation of Human Rights to filter out factually accurate content with inaccurate conclusions. This is definitely a potential risk behind the entire fact-checking mechanism, as people may abuse the system by spreading false information online on purpose to limit the dissemination of true and accurate information in any channels with a similar mechanism for whatever reason.

    • Participation of youth or our next generation is essential for the sustainability of the entire Internet governance community, as well as the discussion of different Internet issues. It is always easy to say “we should encourage youth to participate”, but in reality, youth being unaware of Internet governance is not always the case. There are you in the community, but a sustainable way for meaningful participation is lacking.

      A discussion in the Asia Pacific Youth IGF 2022 highlighted factors that hinder the inclusion of new voices, such as lacking support, gaps in the structure of the Internet governance ecosystem, as well as language barriers, and suggested how the youth community and other stakeholders could and should do to encourage sustainable meaningful participation from our next generation.

    • Youth is contributing with a limited capacity. The key is how our regional discussion and community includes their voice. For example, the youth from the Asia Pacific Youth is discussing and put together a youth statement with their outcomes on different Internet governance issues and working hard on keeping young people in our community. But is our regional discussion and community inclusive enough, in terms of structure and opportunities, to recognize their contribution, and reflect their opinions.

    • APrIGF is by far a pretty welcoming platform for new voices. However, the sustainability of youth participation has always been a challenge. There are fellowship programs that support newcomers, but there isn’t enough support or a clear pathway for them to evolve into different roles in our community.

      For example, joining the MSG and taking up roles to stay involved and contribute to the community is one of the many ways to continue their engagement. But is the existing environment inclusive enough? Not only the nature or design of how things are done in a working group or community but for example, the methods of communications. Is it effective or easy enough for new members to follow?

      The existing format we adopted for communication, for instance, is using a mailing list and sending hundreds of emails back and forth to get one issue discussed or tasks completed. Newcomers might be interested to participating in all these processes and actually being capable to contribute. But a relatively unorganized way of communication might hinder or even discourage newcomers to understand, follow or even contribute to such a meaningful initiative or community.

    • According to a session at the Asia Pacific Youth IGF 2022, it is agreed that collaboration is the key to youth engagement and developing digital citizenship. Collaboration among youth initiatives is needed, in order to create synergies to ensure the youth’s opinions will be reflected as much as we can in different levels of discussion in the Internet governance community.

      In order to develop local digital literacy, support from local organizations or collaborations is needed, as those outreach works are mostly contextual, and local languages and cultures usually have a great influence on capacity building.

    • The cyber-world is a rapidly changing environment. It is a fact that information can be disseminated in just one click with nearly no cost. Mitigating dis/misinformation on social media is a must, but given that social media is a privately-owned public space that is hosting a virtual community, content moderation, particularly on dis/misinformation must not be done by the platform or service provider solely. Instead, a community-based solution has to be proposed.

      Certainly, we can always improve the algorithms to “filter” the information that is inaccurate or false to tackle the issues of dis/misinformation. However, the transparency of practice must be ensured with the participation of the community, as this could balance out the chances of the mechanism being abused and used for censorship.

      Meanwhile, a community-based fact-checking mechanism should be developed and the empowerment of the general public in identifying the truthfulness or accuracy of information should not be neglected.

  • Jeremy Malcolm

  • Jianne Soriano

  • Jim Prendergast

  • Jinel

  • John Jack

  • Jolly Kazi

    • Circular design principles should guide electronics products and devices to ensure sustainable lifecycle management. This involves designing products for longevity, easy disassembly, repairability, and material recovery. Manufacturers should prioritize modular designs, using standardized connectors and components to facilitate upgrades and repairs. Additionally, the use of eco-friendly materials and minimized hazardous substances should be emphasized. Governments can enforce regulations that mandate eco-design criteria, such as minimum product lifespan, reparability scores, and recycled content targets. They can incentivize manufacturers to adopt circular practices through tax benefits, grants, or certification programs. Collaboration between governments, manufacturers, and consumers is vital to establish a circular economy ecosystem that fosters innovation, reduces waste, and ensures the longevity of electronics products while minimizing their environmental impact.

  • Jonathan Brewer

    • The basic method of Internet connectivity is now Wi-Fi.

      Some Asia-Pacific countries prohibit private companies from operating Wi-Fi hotspots, restricting this activity to incumbent telecommunications operators.

      Bridging the Digital Divide depends on free and open access for all people and companies to the radio spectrum that Wi-Fi relies on.

    • Frequency and spectrum are interchangeable terms. I suggest the sentence read either:

      “Open access to WiFi frequencies is increasingly important”


      “Open access to WiFi spectrum is increasingly important”

    • Libraries in some Asia Pacific economies face regulatory hurdles when providing community Internet Access. These can include a:

      1.) a telecommunications license, or dispensation from a licensing regime.
      2.) a requirement to filter Internet content provided through the network
      3.) a requirement to provide interception capabilities for police / government
      4.) a requirement to block Voice over IP technologies including Skype in economies where voice services can only be provided by licensed carriers

      An Asia-Pacific strategy for Community networks and public access to ICT should acknowledge these regulatory hurdles and promote their harmonisation or elimination as a step towards ensuring Universal Access.

    • Telecommunications licensing requirements are a major barrier to connecting the unconnected in developing Asia. Activities such as setting up a community Wi-Fi network are prohibited or made difficult in many economies by regulation, process, and corruption.

      True progress in this area cannot be made until telecommunications regulations in developing nations are relaxed to allow communities and their technical partners to innovate.

      This group would do well to produce a document summarising regulatory barriers to community networks on a country-by-country basis to highlight the problem and pursue it at a regional level.

    • We say “strategies must be developed” but in fact the ITU & World Bank InfoDev already have excellent strategies published in their ICT Regulation Toolkit. Should we instead seek to update or promote their work?

  • Jonathan Brewer

  • Jose Carmelo Cueto

    • I think it is also important to include how the APrIGF and other sorts of discussions in the IGF sector can enable fostering international collaboration on technology standards and norms to ensure consistency and fairness in the global tech landscape. If it would also complete the landscape, there is also a possibility of collaboration on solutions to global challenges, such as climate change and public health, using emerging technologies.

    • I agree with both the points stated by Usman and Paribhasha that biometric data should also be included in the top priorities for legislation. With the evolution of today’s technology and transference information from physical to digital, including the vast amount of information captured through metadata, there needs to be clear and specific rules to simply look over the protection of these sensitive items. Any misappropriated use of biometric data falls under threats to data privacy and cybersecurity.

    • I think there should also be an inclusion of sustainability concerns that particularly emphasize the importance of considering the well-being of the entire ecosystem, not just human needs and desires, and also overlooking the ecological consequences of technology in favor of human convenience can lead to environmental degradation.

  • Joselito Bandelaria Asi

  • Josia Paska

    • In addition to providing access to the internet to more people, we also need to make sure that the internet provides a safe space for minority groups and vulnerable communities. There are at least two issues when it comes to the internet: the monolingualism of it and the lack of content that provides affirmations for minorities and marginalized communities. Therefore, I believe it is important to also think of how we can empower minorities and marginalized communities to populate the internet with native contents by and for the community and to build a safe space so they can not only use, but also thrive on the internet.

  • Joy Liddicoat

  • Joyce Chen

  • Joyce Chen

  • Juggapong

  • Julian

    • Human Rights online should just not limit what we can do in the internet, but it should not be ignored as well. I think the Human Rights online should be its own thing, it should be redefined, privacy offline is not necessarily what is online, free speech offline is not necessarily what it should be online. There is a difference and as such defined differently. It is an interesting topic, it should be highlighted but its definition should be clarified. Human Rights was not defined in a day. The existing one may not at all apply online.

    • With the internet being this ever-evolving entity, human rights on the internet should be ever-evolving as well. We should move forward and see the internet as it is and as it will be with rights ever changing and not as something set in stone.

  • K Mohan Raidu

    • Report on
      APrIGF 2021 – Hyderabad Local Hub

      The Hyderabad Local Hub of Asia Pacific Regional Internet Governance Forum, APRIGF 2021, Asia was conducted in Hybrid mode at Surana Auditorium, Federation of Telangana Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FTCCI).

      In the first part of the program, Opening Plenary was witnessed online from the Auditorium by participants and in online mode. After the introductory remarks by MSG Chair, YIGF representative and UN IGF Programme and Technology manager, Secretary MCIST, Nepal inaugurated the APRIGF. In his address he highlighted the various initiatives of Government of Nepal for Internet access including the Digital literacy program. He urged on the need of interaction among various stakeholders to work on development of Internet Governance.

      The first panel session –Covid-19: Internet as a Lifeline highlighted the various issues related to Internet Governance during COVID-19. Some of the key points discussed during the Panel discussion were: In addition to the physical connectivity, the services accessibility, usability and privacy are the important issues. Though the use of internet has exponentially increased during Covid-19 including tele-consultations, online education, online transactions etc but it has also created new challenges w.r.t breaching of personal information, increase of frauds etc. The panelist urged the Governments should initiate IT & Technology education at school level, address the privacy issues and provide connectivity support to all citizens.

      Inauguration of APrIGF- Hyderabad Local Hub Launching:
      The IGF-Hyderabad Local Hub was inaugurated during the event. Dr. N J Rajaram in his initial remarks stated that we need sustainable, inclusive and trusted internet which has the features namely affordability, accessibility, realism and relevance. MS Khyati Naravane, CEO, FTCCI in her opening remarks congratulated on the inauguration of Hyderabad Local Hub and highlighted the activities of FTCCI.

      The IGF Hyderabad Local Hub was inaugurated by Mr.Jayesh Ranjan, Principal Secretary, IT and industries, Govt of Telangana. In his address, he highlighted about the disruptions that happened due to COVID and urged the readiness towards more and more digitization. He also raised the concerns about dealing with Digital Divide in a better way. Further he discussed the need to deal with online frauds and internet crimes as they were increased during these tough times. Giving his best wishes to the Hyderabad local hub he reiterated that the Government of Telangana would like to partner and participate in the activities of Internet Governance to address the issues highlighted. Mr. K . Bhaskar Reddy in his Presidential address complemented ISOC India, Hyderabad chapter for taking initiatives towards Internet Governance. He urged the need of constant interaction between the Government and stakeholders to address the issues of Internet.

      Mr. K Mohan Raidu, President Internet Society India, Hyderabad Chapter listed various working groups that works towards addressing risk and challenges of Internet. In his address, he highlighted various initiatives of the chapter towards dealing with the challenges faced. He discussed about the Community project to reach to rural areas. He said that ISOC Hyderabad will initiate the activities of collecting mobile devices that are unused by the people so as to help the needy. He also highlighted the initiatives of Universal Acceptance (UA) for multilingual internet.

      Mr. Bala Prasad Peddigari, Secretary, ISOC Hyderabad Proposed vote of thanks.
      After the inauguration of local hub, the participants connected to the Round table discussion on “Impact of Digitization on Climate Change” where the speakers highlighted few of the important issues like better utilization of internet traffic based on various internet traffic patterns and addressing the issue of reducing the power consumption of various devices using the internet even in the idle state. The key take away of the round table discussion was “rather than only thinking about how many bits are transferred there is also a need to estimate the equivalent power consumption”. The next session on “Transnational conversations on reclaiming freedom of expression online” discussed on issues pertaining to gender and other types of discrimination on internet. The panel was of the opinion that freedom of expression cannot be violated in the name of censoring the content. The discussion ended with a note that “There is a need to get the law makers and all stake holders to reduce the discrimination on internet”.

      In the valedictory function, Dr. Salman Abdul Moiz, Vice President ISOC Hyderabad summarized the deliberations happened during the day and urged the participants to come forward in realizing various initiatives of ISOC. The session ended with words of thanks and networking over the lunch. The event was supported by FTCCI and Aurora Technological Research Institute.

  • Kade Thossaphonpaisan

    • We need to identify who has been affected by the digitization processes, and how. For example, whose land is being used to build internet infrastructure such as data centers. And who will build those infrastructures? Who are the laborers behind the digital industry? If they are migrants, or indigenous peoples, how do we integrate them in the internet ecosystem? Could we consider them as a part of the internet ecosystem?

      We also need to think about an efficient e-waste management system, and how to improve the working conditions of waste pickers who are informal workers and take the risk of prolonged exposure to toxic substances.

    • I think the discussion on gig economy in APrIGF this time lacked authentic voices from platform workers. We do not really know what a real challenge for them is, and what they exactly need from related stakeholders. In addition, I think this issue is challenging as their working conditions are different depending on the existing labor protection laws as well as the strength of labour unions in different countries. In the context of my country, Thailand, food delivery drivers and platform drivers, particularly old drivers, has a low digital literacy. Some of taxi drivers have unintentionally started using application to find their customers because young customers have changed their way to ask for taxi services.
      To make a more fair and sustainable digital economy, voices of platform workers need to be heard, and they need to be visible in regional and global meetings such as APrIGF. We need an inclusive solution to close the digital divide and make economic activities more sustainable.

    • One of the speakers raised the issue about the import of surveillance technology such as Pegasus spyware by the government to monitor activists and opposition parties rather than to use for national security reason. In this regard, apart from privacy law in each country and region, the human rights due diligence framework need to be applied with tech companies as we need more transparent in purchasing and selling of surveillance technology. In addition, parliamentarians need to examine the use of state budget in purchasing of digital technology to tackle terrorism and/or protect the nation. Although some governments might argue that such technology is used for security purpose, in reality, it would be used for stealing personal data of ordinary citizens.

    • It is great to see more youth participating in APrIGF. But I would like to encourage this community to use intersectionality lens to think about young representatives. It is not just about age, but also their ethnicity, gender, (dis)ability, educational background and religious/belief etc. For example, how do we encourage young LGBT people from ethnic minority to join as a fellow? Is it possible for young people who are a platform worker and have a low level of education to participate in APrIGF? In this regard, I think we need to start from the local level – to empower those people to be prepared to talk about their issues in the regional and global level.

      In addition, is it possible for APrIGF organizers to provide translators for participants who are not fluent in English? I have been engaging in APrIGF since 2018 and found that there are only a few fellows/youths from my country joining this event. One of the main reasons is that speaking English, particularly in the public, is not easy for them. Even some of them have public speaking skills, but not for English language.

    • I think what is lacking in APrIGF is the equal power relation between stakeholder groups. In particular, in each session, I did not see the diversity among speakers (at least in the sessions I attended) – many of them are from the same stakeholder groups. The sessions that talked about digital rights and disinformation, I did not hear voice from government/lawmakers. How do they work to improve digital rights? And what approach do they work to regulate the Internet? I would like to see more constructive dialogues among CSOs, private sector, tech community, and government in sessions in APrIGF. How can we make APrIGF to be a safe space for discussions for all stakeholder groups?



    • Green Greetings from DAV College Amritsar, Punjab, India !
      We at DAV College Amritsar, believe in equality , inclusiveness and value driven Internet framework for next billion internet user in Asia Pacific. We strongly believe ICT based deliberation and ideation help sustain Human Rights in digital era. We also believe trust can be achieved by incorporating balance between Basic Human Right and Security and privacy on Internet ecosystem . We never advocate hate speech and fake news in order to have more responsible behavior for end user.
      One World One Internet !

    • In my view right to fundamental speech needs to review in the context of freedom of expression. We do need comprehensive framework to address theses issues.

  • Karma Tshering

    • When it comes to improving access to Internet, one of the biggest hurdles is digital divide. Even if the Internet is taken to their door step, digital illiterate (or even uneducated ones) gets left out from the inclusion. So the strategies must be also focused on helping/supporting those people who are first time ICT users. For example, community centers with Internet facilities can be setup within the community and the operators can support those people.

  • Karma Tshering

  • Kasek Galgal

  • Kasun

  • Katherine Townsend

    • Participants shared their experiences of inadvertently allowing a checkmark to be clicked when they did not mean to, allowing their email to be subscribed to multiple newsletters seeking to sell them something. Also noted this happens in real life, not just in online world. For both, the practice may be legal, but it is not honest. It is not trustworthy. One participant recommended applying AI and ML to a browser to catch deceptive design- the question for the day is how to not just counter bad practices, but how to encourage and empower good practices? What do trusted design and trusted design guidelines look like?

  • Kaung Sat Naing

    • To get all inclusive environment, we must need to deal with every stakeholders in each countries. Since there is a lot of differences between between not only rural and urban areas but also between Developing countries and Developed countries. To affordable internet, government need to deal with ISPs to get the access cheap and affordable for all and great connection. To fullfil the digital knowledge, events like APrIGF and yIGF and the others more need to support the local and Regional events.

    • There are still violations of rights in Asia Pacific regions not only from online but also at the ground situations. To protect our rights, we need to express our feelings, our thoughts via using social media to give awareness. And by the rule of laws, although we can cover with it, but the rules must need to protect the freedom of expressions and rights, not to violate it.

  • Kaushalya Gupta

    • As lawmakers move to clamp down on deceptive design practices, we also need to build guidelines and benchmarks for what trusted design looks like as part of a wider shift towards an environment where platforms design their services in a way that puts users in control and where trust becomes a norm. We need to create a culture where trust and long-term relationships are highly valued and where companies that lean on deceptive design practices are made to pay, as empowered customers leave and investors refocus on competitors that meet their expectations around ESG and ethical technology.

      Building the principles, best practices, and regulatory guidance that can shape this environment demands input from a wide spectrum of specialists, from designers and product managers to academics and advocates, and experts already leading the way on regulation.

  • Keane Tolentino

    • This is a very interesting point-of-view, because there is actually a community and project dedicated to digital accessibility called a11ty. It is a community-driven effort to make digital accessibility easier.

      As an aspiring developer myself, I think that at the heart of building a more accessible online community are the ones that build the platforms themselves. Therefore, I believe pushing for a more accessibility-driven development and design to the point that it’s mainstreamed for a truly inclusive internet would cascade into a more accessible online community. This of course, applies to all fields: cloud, web, mobile, IoT, AI, ML, VR, Blockchain, etc.

      This can be accomplished through a lot of ways, one of which I can think of is through incentivizing ideathons and hackathons centered on a11ty paired with active involvement in the internet governance space. As I mentioned, I think there are more ways to go about this, but these are my thoughts regarding the topic.

  • Keith Besgrove

    • Australia’s experience suggests that the digital divide can be reduced but that it is extremely difficult for it to be eliminated. Some of this is because of the challenge of providing connectivity to small numbers of people in very remote locations. While LEO satellite is an obvious emerging solution here, finding ways to address affordability become fundamental to solutions.

  • Kelly Kim

  • Kemly

    • Achieving digital circularity in the electronics sector necessitates a collaborative effort between governments and device manufacturers, grounded in key principles and commitments. Governments must prioritize the development and enforcement of robust regulations that encourage product design for longevity, repairability, and upgradability. Additionally, they should incentivize the adoption of sustainable practices, such as extended producer responsibility and eco-labeling.
      Device manufacturers, on the other hand, must commit to producing electronics with modular components, standardized interfaces, and clear documentation for repairs.
      Embracing open-source designs and sharing repair information can foster a culture of circularity. Moreover, both parties should collaborate on efficient collection, recycling infrastructure, and safe disposal of electronic waste.

  • Ken Katafono

  • Kenn Yee

  • Kenneth Pamintuan

    • I represent as one of the voices of the youth. Based on the Townhall Session held on July 18, 2019, me and my fellow youth participants from YIGF 2019 suggested implementing a “youth section” for the synthesis document from hereon. Knowing that the youth comprises of the majority of internet users online, especially on social media platforms, we would like to extend our help and participate more in these synthesis documents beyond what is expected of us. A large portion of the youth has broad access to the latest trends with the internet, so giving them the opportunity to voice out their opinions into a dedicated section where their thoughts will be focused upon. The youth playing a bigger role in both the multi-stakeholder model and the synthesis document is crucial when highlighting their important perspectives regarding the numerous issues with internet governance.

  • Kenta Mochizuki

    • We held a workshop on the protection of youth online. I know there were several workshops regarding the similar theme. Therefore, we believe that we should include several sentences on the protection of youth online specifically. In this regard, I would like to propose the following sentences.

      “While the freedom of expression based on the free flow of information shall be respected, protecting children from illegal and harmful online contents is one of the most important issues. Accordingly, it is vital for all multistakeholders including governments, private sectors, schools, and child welfare institutions to cooperate and collaborate each other in order to strike a balance between the freedom of expression and the protection of youth online. In addition, comprehensive approaches based on national and international laws as well as self-regulations are indispensable, taking into account cultural, historical, and social differences of countries and regions.”

    • We would like to propose the following paragraph to be provided after para. 16 “II. Security”.

      [Proposed Text]
      17. It is paramount to foster Internet freedom and ensure a safer Internet environment for all. Particular attention should be paid to address rapidly increasing challenges to protect youth online. The enhancement of ICT literacy of youth is important, but the protection of youth from illegal and harmful online contents is also indispensable not only for the Asia-Pacific region. All stakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations should cooperate and collaborate each other in adopting regulatory, self-regulatory, and other effective policies and frameworks to protect children and young people from abuse and exploitation through ICTs, while upholding the freedom of expression online guaranteed by the free flow of information.

    • Thank you so much, Paul and Wanawit. I would like to propose to replace with the following (but with brackets):

      Digital economy and trade are key enablers for the development of the world economy, yet they severely challenge traditional national [borders][jurisdictions]. Now that the digital economy has becomes the economy as such, it does not have any borders. The digital economy and trade cannot be successful without the free flow of information and appropriate domestic and global rules. On the other hand, there is a growing trend that some governments take protectionist approaches on trade by limiting the free flow of information and/or requiring data localization, and the trend hinders the further growth of the world economy. Therefore, constructing the further network of free trade agreements which requires member states to maintain the free flow of information and to ensure the prohibition of data localization as well as source code disclosure unless there is a legitimate public policy reason is recommended. In this regard, close collaboration and thorough discussion among governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations are indispensable.

    • Taking into account all the above proposals, I would like to propose the following text:

      28. V. Multistakeholder Approach
      The multi-stakeholder approach to Internet governance, which includes full and active participation by all stakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations, has been continuously and widely supported by all the stakeholders. This approach should be the basis of domestic and international policy making processes and initiatives which are inclusive, transparent and accountable to all the stakeholders in the world. All the stakeholders should be equal to get involved in the discussion of the Internet governance.

    • We would appreciate if you could add the following sentences in para.30, Security:

      “While recalling the freedom of expression online based on the free flow of information not only domestically but also internationally, the protection of youth from illegal and harmful online contents is one of the most important issues in the Internet governance. Hence, it is vital for all multistakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sectors, schools, and child welfare institutions to cooperate and collaborate each other in order to strike a balance between the freedom of expression and the protection of youth online. In this regard, comprehensive approaches based on national and international laws as well as self-regulations by private sectors are indispensable, taking into account cultural, historical, and social differences of countries and regions.”

    • While I would like to echo what Ms. Hong Xue said, provisions on digital economy and trade are absolutely needed. In addition, there are many kinds of international agreements and policies, so we had better change the title otherwise this paragraph is bit vague and it is unclear what this paragraph wants to say.

      Therefore, I propose the following sentences:

      ¶32 (or appropriate para. number) Digital Economy and Trade

      Digital economy and trade are key enablers for the development of the world economy. Now that the digital economy becomes the economy as such, and does not have any borders. The digital economy and trade cannot be successful without the free flow of information and appropriate domestic and global rules. On the other hand, there is a growing trend that some governments take protectionist approaches on trade by limiting the free flow of information and/or requiring data localization, and the trend hinders the further growth of the world economy. Therefore, constructing the further network of free trade agreements which requires member states to maintain the free flow of information and to ensure the prohibition of data localization as well as source code disclosure unless there is a legitimate public policy reason is highly recommended. In this regard, thorough discussion among not only governments, but also other multistakeholders is encouraged by referring to Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement as one of the examples.

  • Khulan Batbayar

  • Kiki Fong Lim

  • Koichiro Komiyama

  • KS Park

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining greater support in many countries. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? RTBF is a legal device supposed to protect privacy but it delists according to others concepts like public interest, and it is dangerous because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? More fundamentally, the mostly judge-made law delists according to concepts like public interest but it conflicts with public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? However, more fundamentally, the mostly judge-made law orders delisting according to concepts like public interest but it conflicts with free access to information and therefore public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? More fundamentally, the judicial decisions under that concept conflict with public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries facilitating that search such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines.” – Winston, Yasuo (of IFLA); K.S., Kelly (Open Net Korea)

    • Sorry for multiple comments above, which kinda reflect collective stream of consciousness of the working group. Please use the last one signed with the names of all of us (clocked at 7:07am). Also, I think Arthit’s comment is consistent with and incorporatable into our proposed text.

    • “suggests competing public interest” sounds too weak in pointing out the problem. how about “Moreover, emerging jurisprudence is problematice because it imposes a burden. . . .”?

    • Right to be Forgotten is not very welcomed in Asia for a reason. There are many former colonies and dictatorships which until recently have not resolved the past injustices or oppressions that still stand as structural roadblocks in the paths to equality and democracy. In addressing those structures, we need to see the whole truth, not partial truth. Not truth just about public figures, not truth only about high level officials who collaborate with dictatorships or colonial administrations. Not just truth ordained by some offical history books issued by the governments. Not just truths approved through majoritarian decisionmaking as suitable for public discussion. Truth can only be approached only when having all voices heard including subjective ones.

      Proponents of Right to be Forgotten offer that it does not apply to public figure, but sometimes you need more information to decide whether someone is public figure or not. If the information is delisted, you really cannot make that determination properly.

      ​Moreover, people who in the past were not public personas, may become public figures in the future. Then their past may matter.

      People have collective right to know the wrongs of not just others, or even themselves. Collective right to observe, evaluate, and retain what they see in one another. So that they do stand as responsible colleagues to one another and keep themselves from repeating the wrongs. This is how the ethics of a society are done: by learning from the past. Publicness is exactly the space for collective learning.

      There are already many laws in Asian countries that interfere with such communal learning by suppressing even truthful information. For instance, in Korea, we have a truth defamation law where even information not proven to be false can subject to criminal prosecution merely for lowering another person’s reputation. We cannot have another principle such as RTBF that undermine our publicness.

      RTBF, currently framed, also constitutes administrative censorship. Non-judicial administrative body, namely data protection agencies, are empowered to order search engines to manipulate search results. Administrative censorship has been abused deeply and widely in Asia for blinding people from truths inconvenient to the authorities, as you could see in recent internet shutdowns in South Asia. The danger of administrative censorship is that lawful information can be taken down due to progovernment bias can dilute those decisions. Also, the subject of orders are likely to challenge the decision even if there is a judicial review process because the government can always retaliate even just for challenging it.

      Some people like to believe that data protection authorities are different from other organizations that have conducted censorship but I do not see it that way. I already see the evidence that in Peru, other Latin American countries where DPA is really playing the role of censorship. And in Korea, the dangers are also being played out. Internet censorship is not taking down unlawful content, but taking down unethical content and what is ethical is decided by these nine Korean males in their 50s and 60s and nobody can really get a consistent principle out of that. This only goes to show the dangers of DPA authorized to take down truthful public information for the pretext of RTBF.

    • Joint Statement of the Dynamic Coalition on Publicness Concerning the Right to Be Forgotten

      The public realm is losing ground. New regulation and jurisprudence are being conceived to address conflicts concerning the digital dimension of the public space and our ability, as Internet users, to reflect on ourselves. One of them is the so-called “right to be forgotten” (RTBF). The version originally formulated and popularized by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is now being adopted in other regions and with slightly different manifestations including both the right to delist and the right to delete content.
      The underlying motive behind the idea of the RTBF is people’s fear of being discriminated against for their past conduct. If this is the case, we need to recognize that blinding ourselves from one another’s wrongs (or supposed wrongs) is not an effective way of addressing and combating unreasonable discrimination. Under current rulings, the supposed wrongdoers can censor search results about themselves just because they think that certain past conduct is currently irrelevant to the moral evaluation of their character by others. Such self-centered censorship will prohibit people from confronting the real forces that are fanning such discrimination. Discrimination can only be addressed when the problems and its causes are known to society.

      Furthermore, blinding ourselves to information about others’ conduct is not a proportionate way of combating discrimination. Information that the supposed wrongdoers would like to bury deep within the Internet may be vital for the safety of the people who have pending encounters with the individual in question. Suppressing certain truthful information may be necessary to guard against a high likelihood of immediate discrimination, as in the case of former sex workers or sex abuse victims in certain cultures, but such likelihood must be measured against objective criteria not simply against subjective reputational wishes of the supposed wrongdoers. A viable legal provision against discrimination is possible and in many legislations already existent: either in ex ante forms, such as amnesties or expungement provisions, or in ex post forms protecting other personal rights, such as defamation. RTBF goes beyond that by restricting people trying to protect themselves from sharing vital information. A more effective and proportionate remedy against discrimination is allowing more information to be made available about people so that others’ perceptions of them can be properly contextualized.
      Simply put, information is not the reason for discrimination, but prejudice. Prejudice is not based on information, but on the moral decision to do harm by misusing information. We should combat discrimination, not information.

      RTBF depends on the temporal relevance of data, as in the phrase “no longer relevant;”thus, it is fundamentally incompatible with freedom of speech and freedom of information. Data does not become irrelevant with the passage of time because data, while becoming irrelevant in one respect or according to a particular perspective, may become or remain relevant from other angles or for other reasons – e.g., for historians, journalists, social scientists, policy-makers, or cultural studies. In fact, the value of data does not reside in the data in itself but in the eyes of the beholder. People may find relevance in old data that other people do not see. Freedom of speech and freedom of information recognizes that pluralistic ideal and grants people of all remote idiosyncrasies the right to impart or receive information as long as such action does not present a high risk of immediate and substantial harm. Freedom of speech does not judge on the relevance of speech.

      The popular defense of RTBF – that it does not apply to public figures or information of public significance – misses this point. Public interest is in constant flux. Suppression of seemingly insignificant data may suppress the possibility of public discourse because revelation of important public facts is often made possible by assembling a mosaic of facts that seem irrelevant to the majority of the people at given times. This is why RTBF is extremely problematic in many transitioning countries where full information is urgently needed to address impunities from colonial and dictatorial periods. Particularly in those countries, distinguishing between public and private figures is often impossible without the full availability of information.

      Finally, RTBF does not condemn the so-called “no longer relevant information” itself, but rather focuses on making that lawful information available online. In the future, this may mean that, those, especially the impoverished, who are limited to using censored search results will not have access to the information that the rich will be able to uncover by hiring people to conduct brute investigations. RTBF is therefore directly opposed to the Internet’s potential as the equalizer and liberator in terms of facilitating people’s access to information.

      We believe that the RTBF results from a misconception of the public realm in the digital age. There is a need for research to first understand the scope and dynamics of the public space after digitization. An increase in the amount and availability of information online affects our thinking about privacy, and it challenges our understanding of the public and the private. The RTBF as articulated by the ECJ, however, does not even attempt to do that, but rather tries to apply the norm regardless of whether it is public or private.

      For these reasons, we believe that RTBF jurisprudence should be withdrawn and should not be expanded in any way.

      Please sign here. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSftuxOmHMYdPVWQY3UOoZYnVd_eyWwUMi06nAh3LeVa7E-G4g/viewform?c=0&w=1

    • Building networks in geographically remote areas is one of the most important challenges that we need to meet. Internet has thrived because the networks and the content on them were built by private actors voluntarily who try to meet the demands of the users, and because of the shared control among different stakeholders, the multi-stakeholder model is important. To further increase access in geographically remote areas, we must incentivize private actors into building networks, and the private actors who are most efficient in monetizing access are global portals and therefore they are most incentivized in building networks. That is why you see Facebook developing solar panels, Google developing Loony Project, etc. These platforms’ entry into network building create various competition issues, i.e., verticial integration. Also, we can easily think of these content providers building networks or activating networks just for access to their contents, the case on point, Free Basics in India. Through the multi-stakeholder model, we should discuss how and whether to embrace these initiatives.

    • I think the problem with RTBF is that it does not make such distinction, i.e., for any personal data whether consisting of public content or private content, people accessing that data or search engine helping such people are imposed a burden to prove “public interest’ or drop from search. For instance, a stock broker puts out his financial information online to demonstrate his investment skills. Can he later suppress that information from search results “for being personal data” (maybe to avoid criticisms when his clients complain about bad performance of his portfolios)? If you say “no”, who is there to show public interest in keeping that data when the broker files a suppression request.

    • I think that RTBF has proximity to Internet shutdowns in para 19 because it disables critical functions of internet governance for reasons not related to access to illegal information. RTBF rule applies to information that is perfectly legitimate by itself and requires that information to be hidden from search. Internet shutdown does similar things to internet traffic.

    • The Internet has been the catalyst for an information revolution of the past few decades thanks to the way the data delivery cost has been crowd-sourced among all participants in the Internet so efficiently as to be reduced to almost zero except that all participants had to pay only for the cost of maintaining physical connections with the local neighbors (“internet access fee”, “transit fee”) in proportion of the connection capacities. This way of cost sharing allowed people to communicate en masse at the scales dwarfing that of postage and telephony. A current regulation in Korea mandating ISPs to charge one another for the volume of traffic sent (the sender pay model) contrarily to the Internet way of things, has already increased the IP transit cost in Seoul to 8 to 10 times that of Paris, London, and Frankfurt, and made it prohibitive for overseas contents to be distributed within Korea, making Korea suffer from “the worst latency among OECD countries.” While Korea is about to extend the sender pay rule directly to content providers and other users of the Internet, European Commission is also considering a proposal to charge ”fair share“ of data delivery costs on the content providers again presumably with regard tothe data sent. These proposals, already once discussed and rejected back in 2011-12 by ITU, OECD, and BEREC, will bring the civilization back to the days of scarce and expensive communication through telephony as people uploading contents for a large audience will be charged each view. The Internet access (or ”being online“) has been a homogeneous product everywhere: it was the full connectivity to everyone else online. With the sender pay model, only the contents whose data delivery fees has been paid will be made available to the subscribers of only those ISPs that received those fees. The Internet as each of you see will be vary and and therefore become fragmented depending on the negotiations among your local ISPs and content providers. The Internet will lose its meaning as the platform on which all the global citizens could communicate with one another directly, freely, equally, and vigorously. We at APrIGF demand that the policy makers in Korea and Europe exercise caution and take into account the voices of the people who will be affected by these changes.

  • Kuan-Ju Chou

  • Kyaw Zaw Lin

    • The progression of cyber security among the human interactions is an inevitable outcome but the barrier to which people being bullied with terms and data gathering is due to the system created by the people themselves. It’s a perfect world where every individual feeling safe online but the very platform is built by a human which means there’s always a back door flaw for intervention and manipulation. Perhaps the only alternative is a platform to be created, generated and regulated fully by a computer from scratch to development which in this sense requires years of human trust in technology to even start taking its shape in the first place.

  • Leotrina Macomber

  • Li-Heng Yu

    • Not only Southeast Asia have such problem rising, many East Asia countries also facing such problem during/after the pandemic due to either the online scamming/misinformation are rapidly increasing or the political situation within/between countries changed.

      Governments have designed some kind of mechanism to block contents. They might use those to also block unwanted content, and which will lead to the censorship issues.

  • Lim May-Ann

  • Lin Tsz Ching, Cadence

    • The recent trend is that censorship does not merely come in closing down of network or interrupted access to the Internet, but sometimes authoritative governments deliberately create traffic jam for websites that voices unfavourable opinions or opinions from the minority so that the website becomes unaccessible. Maybe this could also be acknowledged in the synthesis document and assistance and protection for those websites could be considered.

      Also, in my opinion any disruptions to the access to mobile and Internet services should be avoided at all cost, no matter whether standards have been established in national legislation or what because access to internet is a basic human right which should not be violated. Laws that are against this human right are not justified, and provides an excuses for authoritative regimes in censorship.

  • Lokendra Sharma

    • Greetings to the Drafting Committee of the APrIGF,

      I request you to kindly consider providing references (as footnotes) for the two statistical claims made in this paragraph.

      Similarly, references can be provided for statistical/factual claims made elsewhere in the document.

      Overall, the synthesis document reads good to me. Congratulations to the Drafting Committee (and the entire APrIGF community) for their efforts in compiling this wonderful document.

      Lokendra Sharma
      Member, MSG, APrIGF.

    • Fostering trust in the internet, including the processes and infrastructure that underpin it, has been an aspirational goal for decades. But the involvement of governments, corporations and malicious actors in the governance and functioning of the internet has meant that this goal has been unreachable. The idea of mathematical trust, wherein two parties interacting or transacting on the internet can trust each other by relying on mathematical principles, is a good solution. Wider adoption of blockchain technology, which has mathematical trust at its core, may be helpful in fostering trust in the internet.

    • Agree with you Paribhasha and Brian.

      Response to Brian: It is indeed a downside. Multiple sessions happening in parallel often leads to dilemmas about what to attend and what to forego. But there is no feasible alternative to parallel sessions given the need to squeeze in a number of sessions (and co-located events) in a span of a few days. However, one thing that reduces the ‘opportunity cost’ associated with attending any given session is to check the recordings of the missed sessions at the official APrIGF YouTube channel. Thanks to the hybrid format, both offline and online inputs are captured in these recordings.

    • While ‘walled gardens’, lack of interoperability and other techno-economic factors contribute to internet fragmentation, the more potent threat to universal internet may come from political side. The US, Europe, China and Russia are all promoting their own visions of how the internet should function and be governed. This geopolitical push and pull may fragment the internet in the future.

    • Thank Winston for your comment. While smartphone may have become more common in usage in the early 2000s, the first smartphone was actually developed in early 1990s. Therefore, writing “thirty years” here is appropriate. You may refer to the following resources:

  • Lokesh


    • Education is the gateway to enabling youth to gain digital literacy and which will eventually lead towards digital citizenship. Thus it is important to educate the youth on how to be responsible nitizens who are ready for this internet centric world. We should aim to include more youth in engaging conversatios and spreading more awareness of internrt governance in the APAC region and others.

    • Building a resilient internet encompasses many facets such as making internet accessible during natural disasters such as typhoons and earthquakes. One such initiatives are LACS and LEOs which not only help end users who face natural disasters but also those who live in rural areas with either unstable internet connection or none at all. This helps create an internet which is able to overcome any obstacles it faces.

  • Mahadi Adam Ibrahim, ISOC CHAD member

  • Maheeshwara Kirindigoda

  • Maheeshwara Kirindigoda

  • Mandy Chan

    • Apart from including the youth, I think it is also important for us to include the elderly in the discussion. With the advancement and spread of smart gadgets, more and more middle-aged people and elderly are now using these smartphones for online activities and to connect with their family and friends. However, for quite a number of them are not as alert as young people, who are digital natives, when it comes to issues like cybersecurity and privacy protection. Some of them have only little understandings on these dangers, which means that they are probably more prone to cyber crimes, privacy breach and so on. It is essential to include them in the discussion of internet governance so that we can understand better about their difficulties and better address them.

  • Mansi Sharma

  • Maria De Brasdefer

  • Maria Umar

    • Internet Access has hugely changed my personal life and helped me change that of other women around me. The Women’s Digital League was formed when I was fired from my teaching job because the private school I was working at would not give me maternity leave. Sitting at home with a simple dial up connection I found remote work. Earning my first $2.5 writing an article for someone in the US gave me much-needed confidence in my abilities. It was a stepping stone to becoming financially empowered and independent; being recognized as the top most impactful entrepreneur in Pakistan; and in showing women they didn’t have to accept status quo. With greater financial empowerment I ahve seen young women not settle for the first proposal that came for them as they were no longer a burden on their household; send siblings to school/college; have greater say in decisions at home; be more respected and therefore have a higher self-esteem.

  • Mariko Kobayashi

  • Maristela

    • I agree with Namkha. I think that it can go both ways: make services and products inclusive or exacerbate the already uneven distribution of access and opportunities. This depends on digital literacy and affordability, among other things. The design should also be questioned. Who says it’s inclusive? Does it include everyone or just the sectors or groups that developers or companies want to target? It was mentioned earlier how the concerns of persons with disabilities are not always considered in the design. Social norms and morals should also be considered. Because of the diversity of cultures and beliefs, there may be some resistance against accessibility.

    • I think trust and accountability have to be discussed together because in order for us to foster growth and innovation, there needs to be a certain level of trust among stakeholders. However, there has to be measures in place to ensure accountability; for that trust be kept. We need to have a way to check that stakeholders are doing what they say are doing and nothing more. Once people see how stakeholders are held accountable for their actions, trust will grow.

  • Marlon

    • One of the key points highlighted during the workshop is the need for education and awareness.

      1. Technical solutions and competencies are the technical deterrence to secure systems, to try and reduce or prevent technical vulnerabilities.

      2. Legislation and laws are an approach to try and deter a behavioral motive but not necessarily prevent deter technical attacks. The bad guys do not care about laws.

      3. Education and awareness is a user preventive measure from exposure to security vulnerability due to illiteracy and ignorance.

      Therefore Education and awareness is an equally important measure to cyber security

  • Mary Rose Ofianga

    • [WS17. The Future of Digital Identity and Human Rights] Many of the governments are into digital identities. In the case of the Philippines, a National ID the law was just recently signed by the president. In a way, this is beneficial to the citizens in improving ease of transactions with among government agencies. But the question is, how resilient is our government in protecting our date. A data breach already happened in the Philippines which put 70M Filipinos’ personal data at risk. In the case of the National ID Law, we have to make sure that the Data Privacy Act will be reinforced to the government as the data controller and processor. Aside from that, a protocol has to be established to make sure that these data wont be compromised for whatever misuse.

    • [WS23. Big tech everywhere: Is this the future of the Internet?  ] During the panel discussion there was a concern about Big Fall of Big Tech. It becomes a trend that big tech companies are acquiring small tech companies to expand their products and services, leaving people with still limited options on online products and services. However, we may not be able to stop these big companies from doing that, that is our business, certainly. But what we can do is start and keep supporting tech startups in out locality, help build the startup ecosystem, and create more options, even gradually. Let’s promote permissionless innovation, support our local tech startups, and raise awareness about internet governance to this community.

  • Maureen H

    • The eGovernment workshop involved getting ideas from the participants of what they would like to have in their eGovernment website if they were asked for input. As most of them in this group were from Vanuatu, and I know that Vanuatu is currently setting up their infrastructure for an eGovernment website, I will include these inputs into my report on the workshop and send a copy to the Vanuatu Government’s Office of Information and Communication. Hopefully the APRIGF can contribute some input into the development of their country’s new eGov system.

    • During the Digital Literacy session, I raised the huge reluctance by holders of traditional knowledge about healing medicines made from natural plants, to digitise information that has been gained by the use of generations of healers. They believe that by secularising this information would take away their “mana” – the God-given gift of healers. So how do we access and retain valuable information about the healing properties of our natural biodiversity, so that it doesn’t get lost over time and so that modern science can make use of the information to benefit others?

    • I agree with Don that for underserved communities in our region affordability is a real barrier to access. Content in local languages should also be valued and encouraged.

    • Because legislation is the domain of governments should there not be some inclusion here of the importance of government decision makers being involved in these consultations regarding approaches to NN legislation?

    • Providing a forum at all these larger events for the youth to express their views is vital if the internet and its governance is to develop to meet their future needs. Kudos to APrIGF for the initiatives they have established for Asia Pacific youth.

    • Universal access is different.. but I would include it as part of this universality section. I think UA is definitely important.

    • The Nepal Wireless Connectivity Project (WS#90)

    • Last mile issues for developing countries. For example, although Pacific Islands governments realise the value of many newly established cable connections, many have not fully factored in the ongoing costs of ensuring that infrastructure and future maintenance, governance structures and human and other capacities match the potential of the connectivity.

    • Internet adoption is increasing slowly in the Pacific mainly due to its lack of affordability. There are still island countries where monopoly Telecoms (and even some where there are multiple providers, e.g. Papua New Guinea) put the internet out of reach of those who need the access, but it is too expensive. Many Pacific users only have access to the internet at work, Private connections are unaffordable on their low local wages. The cost for businesses as well as for learning, information and other valuable uses is quite prohibitive.

    • The SDGs provide significant focus areas for development in regions such as the Pacific and ICTs and internet connectivity could be a major contributor to this development. Unfortunately there is not enough research being done to identify how appropriate technologies and internet connectivity can effectively contribute to the future-proofing of mitigation measures being introduced by local donor-funded projects.

    • Arthit has mentioned below that some statistics related to the development of the APrIGF Synthesis Document could be included into this document, perhaps as an appendix (?)
      This would add to its authenticity when we present it elsewhere. The appendix could briefly explain the process, the schedule, and the names of eventual contributors and/or where they come from within the region to demonstrate the spread of contributing voices.

      Because paras 3 & 4 are about process and not content, they could be deleted (and the appendix section developed).

    • You raise an important point Hong with regards to the need for attention to copyright rules and a supporting legal environment to protect intellectual property in the rush for the development of online courses.

    • Home schooling during the pandemic imposed pressures on parents of students of all ages juggling their new teaching role, sometimes for several levels, with other family and paid work responsibilities. Many schools in the Pacific that were already challenged with regards to scarce teaching resources and inadequately skilled staff, failed to provide an appropriate online learning environment for their students. Many students received no education during the lockdowns brought about by the pandemic.

    • Capacity building and training for educators…. ARE needed to provide.. etc

    • Solar energy farms on isolated small islands have not only enhanced the quality of the air on these island environments, without the use of hazardous fossil fuels to power old generators, but the new power source has enabled 24×7 use of green technologies for health and education, with cleaner and less expensive power generation which supports a further reduction in any climate change impacts.

    • We changed the title of the session to “the Challenges of attempting digital transformation in Small Island Developing States” when the team was reduced by two discussants who hadstories to tell from their islands. They had had a conflict with High level ICT conferences that were being held on PNG in the same week.

      This is just a comment. We are putting together a summary of our session presentations and will get it to you by the 3rd.

    • Digital transformation is an aspiration for many small island developing states in the Pacific. As a case-study, the Cook Islands government has utilised valuable overseas aid support over the years to lay the groundwork for greater connectivity for its citizens on tiny and remote outer islands. Six-hours a day of diesel-powered electricity has now been replaced by 24×7 clean electricity powered by solar energy, and they can all now connect to 4G mobile broadband. Most of the tiny island populations have smart phones and are becoming more competent digital natives as more services become available and are more affordable. The government’s newly published ICT Policy depicts ICT being used by all sectors and ages and abilities of internet users – leaving noone behind. Setting up an appropriate infrastructure has been important so that citizens will be able to access more online government services as they are developed. An important pre-requisite to this access will be ensuring that everyone has a legal identity through a comprehensive civil registration system which records ALL births and deaths in the country. While the Cook Islands already maintains a successful record of this important information, transferring it to a digital system will also enhance citizen access to the wider range of government services, including e-Commerce and other important internet-related economic opportunities. Other Pacific nations are following similar trends.

    • Hi Trang
      Thank you for you great comments. I hope I covered at least some of your concerns in my paragraph about what we are doing in the Cook Islands.

    • Comment to be added to my statement above.
      However, as with any successful change activity in the Pacific or elsewhere, technology is the comparatively simple part of digital transformation, the difficulties often lie in a behaviour change within the society itself – not only to drive usage and adoption of digital, but also to break down silos within and beyond government, and to change ways of working and thinking. A whole-of-society approach to digital transformation is crucial. It is not the domain of a single sector, actor, or institution.

  • Maureen Hilyard


  • Meenu Priya k G

    • Anyone with a gadget can access the whole world for collecting information and providing the same. Mainly in this pandemic situation it is the only possible platform for all the above. Even it is a virtual space still exists gender discrimination and attack against women. Then how they can be involve fearlessly in the cyber space? Question of equality is not solved yet. These are to be very seriously taken into consideration.

  • Mili

  • Ming Thet Paing

  • Ming Yip

    • A solid and detailed guideline for the enforcement body is essential. We cannot guarantee that the enforcement body would not perform any acts that go beyond the line and infringes ones’ privacy, even when its intention is to promote national security. In that connection, there must also be ways to stop those enforcement bodies from continuously infringing individual privacy.

      In relation to the balance, it is also suggested that the guidelines should incline more to the protection of individual privacy, which is believed fundamental in human rights.

    • Aside from internet governance, internet itself is not generally known by the public in some pacific islands. As reflected by the local youth in yIGF, many of them said that the fact that they do not understand what internet is has hindered the progress of internet access.

      In this connection, I think different stakeholders should also educate more on the basic concepts of internet in some pacific islands, which is also an important capacity building section. So with more knowledge on internet, internet access may be promoted, and so as internet governance eventually.

  • Ming Yip

    • A more solid and detailed guideline is essential for enforcement bodies. We cannot guarantee that the enforcement bodies would not go beyond the line that excessively infringes ones’ privacy. In that connection, there have to be ways or directives to prevent those enforcement bodies from continuously infringing ones’ individual privacy, even when its intention is to protect national security.

      In relation to the balance, it is suggested that the guideline should incline more on the side of individual privacy, as this is fundamental in human rights.


  • Mohit Saraswat

    • Building Trust on the Internet ( Surveillance state in AP)- In my view, it is very important that all the stakeholder have optimum trust in the platform. To achieve the same all the stakeholders have to shoulder responsibilities.

      End user are to be made aware of their privacy needs.
      Content provider and Collaboration tools ( Read Twitter, Facebook) that form important part of the ecosystem have to derive and develop plans to incorporate trust; Segregating private and public space for the end user.
      Government and regulator have to be made responsible for respecting and building trust.

    • In my opinion, a lot of machines would constitute to a bigger portion of the next billion that would be joining the internet. Machine to Machine communication would be an integral part of internet expansion. Its important that security by design is considered in M2M communication.

    • While these treaties and agreement would be certainly helpful in ensuring the cross border data flow, which was one of the building block of the internet, it would be beneficial to have it done providing a level playing field to all the parties involved. Mechanism should be inbuilt in these treaties ensuring that the further development of digital economy for the developing countries are not compromised in any ways. This also include offsetting measures that data localization brings to the parties advantage.

  • Mokabber

    • hello, I am mokabberi from Iran, advisor of cyber policy research institute.

      My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • hello, I am mokabberi from Iran, advisor of cyber policy research institute.

      My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • One suggestion:
      A percent of (for example about 5 percent) of taxes of global tech companies and digital platforms that payed to governments can allocated for IGF budget for the implementation of IGF strategic plan and research and development Fund in the field of internet governance in national and international level . By this initiative funding problems of NRIS will be solved.

    • hello,
      this suggestion can be enclouded in aprigf massage :
      One suggestion for increase of financial Strengths of IGF
      A percent of (for example about 5 percent) of taxes of global tech companies and digital platforms that paid to governments can allocated by them for IGF budget for the implementation of IGF strategic plan and research and development Fund in the field of internet governance in national and international level . By this initiative funding problems of NRIS will be solved.

    • hello, from mokabberi from iran.
      my comments
      we have seen some organized disinformation and fake news in social media with geopolitical purpose ,for example we clearly see that some networks of fake accounts and bots are producing fake news against shia muslims in the name of sounni muslims and at the same time, they are spreading disinformation and hate speech against sunni muslims in the name of shia muslims. We all know who benefits from conflict between muslims and Who benefits from conflict between russia and europe.
      what should be done with this organized disinfo at global level that want to make hostilities among nations and religious groups in the world to gain iligimate economical and political interest?
      Regulation? Digital ethics? Awareness and digital litracy?
      Declaration by stakeholders?

  • Ms Nasuven Enares c/- Pauline Molissa USP Port Vila Vanuatu

  • Muhammed Abdullah Al Mamun

    • There should be decentralized as well as multi-stakeholders’ endrosement then I believe accountability as well as transparancy would be ensured. There should be clear indication in terms of privcy as well as governance. It is worth mentioned that without good governance, it would be difficulat to gain trust and reliability. And, definitely along with people and process, there will be requried for technologies to enfornce as we have to trust with verificaiton.

    • Internet is like open ocean and quite difficult to track over there. There should be multi-stakeholders’ approach for the betterment of internet governance. One cannot be responsible or accountable, instead a group or team. There could be monopoly in case of centralization, power exercise, suppression, etc. as we are observing region to region or country to country. Beside this, privacy along with accountability need to be ensured.


      There should be decentralized as well as multi-stakeholders’ endorsement then I believe accountability as well as transparency would be ensured. There should be clear indication in terms of privacy as well as governance. It is worth mentioned that without good governance, it would be difficult to gain trust and reliability. And, definitely along with people and process, there will be required for technologies to enforce as we have to trust with verification.

  • Mythri Prabhakara

    • This was a good session. Particularly due to the dialogue between Private Sector, academia and civil society on Covid-19 apps being rolled out by governments. The role of the private sector and governments under different jurisdictions to ensure privacy rights as well as the long-term implications of such apps on privacy rights were discussed.

    • Many radical ideas were shared in this session. Particularly:

      1. The need to have conversations on what happens before digital violence.

      2. How laws and legal systems primarily police the human body instead of policing the crime. Also the very important question on the consent and the category of victim on the internet.

      3. Challenging the notion that laws are unbiased responses to oppression. Another important point on how caste oppression gets copy-pasted online and with digital violence.

      4. Lack of algorithmic accountability and how the social media we use breaks down our behaviors, even our bodies into categories and the biases they propagate.

      5. The inadequacy of the very imagination of the government regarding digital spaces and rejected the traditional mindset that applies to policymaking in digital spaces.

  • N.Pravina

  • Nabillah Hijazu

    • What are the roles of all stakeholders in access provision and inclusion, and the provision of education and training for information literacy and digital literacy, including the responsible exercise of these skills with respect for other people? 3 recommendations that should be implemented by Internews to help the community especially.
      First of all is to go back to basics. We might have the understanding that we are going to go into communities with the power and privilege we have compared to the community that we are going to serve. However, we should view anything that we are going to do with the community as a learning process for both parties. Listen first to their information and the knowledge they know so far. Assessment within the community to adapt on what they want and what they need. Only then education and awareness take place to disseminate the knowledge.

      Secondly, we should hold on to the principle of do no harm in a more practical way. When talking about information it can be accessed online and offline. For the online platform, the way we engage with the community should be based on their understanding and we do not want to open can of worms where we educate them on how to get the information but not how to control themselves to impart the knowledge properly. Either urban or rural communities, they are all prone to the danger of the internet and false news. This is where we should be careful on what we go through with them as at the end we could not just leave them without properly briefing them on the online danger too.

      Thirdly, no one is left behind. We tend to assume that rural communities have a lack of access for information. However, there are reports of those educated and also professionals that fell into scams and did not know properly on how to differentiate the quality and originality of the information. This could cause more harm in the society and community. The outreach of the programme should comprise the rural, urban poor and community organizers that will help the community in exercising their knowledge and rights and in a way enhance their literacy.

  • Nadira Alaraj

    • UA is a foundational requirement for multilingual Internet, in which users around the world can navigate via DNS entirely in local languages. UA needs coordination efforts by the private sector, technical & academic communities, civil society, and governments to ensures that all domain names and email address internationalization (EAI) can be used by all Internet-enabled applications, devices, and systems.
      There is an importance need to make everyone from the stakeholders aware of the UA and its tight connection with the IDNs and what advantages it can provides to the general public. Awareness is not enough but creating the drive or motives to demand all stakeholders of serious efforts towards the inclusiveness of the IDNs and EAI.
      There are few research and development experiments in APAC region on IDNs and EAI, but more resources is needed to work on standardization.
      Creating a consistent environment of enabling the access of local content with local domain name and send and receive emails using the local email address.

    • [ Internet Governance & Multi-Stakeholder Participation ]

      No one denies the importance to make the voice of underrepresented communities be heard at APrIGF or any other IGFs. But at the end of the day, it will discussions that “could” be heard by the decision making bodies but there might not be any follow up.
      What would be a good approach is to develop the connection between APrIGF Community (like MSG, or other subject matter experts to join ITU Government delegates for consultancy during the development of ITU resolutions.

    • [WS6. Analyzing Perspectives on Youth Participation in the Multi-stakeholder Landscape: A Contextual Follow-Through Session on Motivations to Sustainability Efforts]

      APrIGF has to be proud of having youth organizing a session and sharing experiences. Attended the meeting thinking that there will be discussions on how the Youth fit into the overall scene in the IGFs, but the focus of the workshop was on the different youth initiatives. What was shared of the youth engagement in the Philippines would give an example of how youth are contributors to policy development in their own country.

    • Norms should be developed from bottom-up in multistakeholder model.

      Great research, this bottom-up of putting Norms when talking about children stopped me.
      The digital norms are taking the net citizen to a completely different path of norms that was practiced before the Internet. Hence, the MS model that you are mentioning that need to be developed on an equal footing. To bring the experience and wisdom of the past with the practices of today.

    • So far cybersecurity laws have failed to protect the freedom of speech.
      The problem that most states are putting regulations without wider public consultation. It depends on parliament members to comment or endorse new laws.
      Would be possible to do some changes in the jurisdiction model to bring balanced views?

    • [WS48. A roadmap for studying ICT laws and building a database for Asia]
      I didn’t attend this session, however, the organizer of this workshop could benefit of the pilot project that was done by iGmena to: Internet Legislation Atlas
      “The ILA aims to pinpoint opportunities for improvements and contribute to raising the awareness of concerned stakeholders, and empowering civil society to participate in the Internet policy dialogue in the regional and global level and influence the decision-making process in the local level. This is done through:

      Mapping the legal landscape in each country as it relates to the Internet and civil society.
      Outlining gaps and ambiguities among existing laws and regulations in relation to international human rights standards.
      Highlighting opportunities for advocacy regarding Internet-related law and policy in each country drawing on international human rights standards and best practices.
      Connecting civil society to resources that will help them navigate the legal environment.”

    • [WS12. Coping with misinformation in an era of information deluge: Who is Responsible?]

      Who is responsible: basically, every single person of us who share information either verbally, by email or through social media networks without authenticating it.
      The challenge that we all face that the misinformation are getting smarter and hard to even an intelligent person to identify it. For example, the AI deep fake application which is available to anyone easy to use. This application can give anyone the tool to take a photo and use audio to make a video. This application has a double edge sword as artist and ad producer could be creative to do very creative videos but on the other hand, those who produce disinformation could use it as well to mislead the general public.

      As disinformation are using AI, Many issues must be considered.
      -Increase evidence-based policy research as there is a lack of evidence on the impact or influence of the use of technology or AI for disinformation campaigns.
      -Clickbait and targeted advertising business models that are based on the promotion of sensationalist news as a means of competing in the market for individuals’ attention. Big companies employ algorithms that exploit user data. Hence, there is a need to have serious discussions on how to protect users data.
      Hence Data protection
      If the illegal collection and access to users’ data is stopped, micro-targeted disinformation campaigns would lose much of their effectiveness and threat potential. As is already clear, weak data protection rules and enforcement not only impact user privacy and choice, but also lead to constant monitoring, profiling, and “nudging” towards political and economic decisions.

    • [WS35. Language Diversity in Asia-Pacific: Challenges towards Digital Dividends]
      According to UNESCO, there are more than 6000 languages worldwide.
      To have a practical approach to digital language diversity and local content is to adopt policies that encourage local content producers. Countries in APAC region adopted the official languages, hence all content hast to depend on those languages and reduce the dependency on content produced from the developed countries.
      This approach might put some communities into a disadvantage. But empowering minorities to produce their content and in their own languages will help to preserve it.

      On another aspect, algorithm bias in search engines does create a divide based on the language the users are searching with.

    • The challenging of implementing good eGovernment services in developing economies is the infrastructure and reaching to the last mile.
      Hence along with the development of the portal, the Government has to develop the right strategies to the grantee that their e-services do reach out to every single citizen. It might be done by allocating certain stations in the remote areas.

  • Naima Awan

    • Unfortunately, our people are not even familiar with the basic concepts of digital literacy and digital citizenship. So, there is a dire need to educate and aware our public.
      Including digital literacy in school and college curriculums, funding organizations that are working in this regard and hosting more initiatives and platforms to educate people are necessary to make internet a safe space for all.
      Moreover, as discussed in one of the sessions, a multi stakeholder approach to regulate Internet without harming the rights of freedom of speech and expression has become a need of the hour.

  • Namkha Zangpo

  • Namra Naseer

  • Nattaya Jaratruangsaeng

  • Natthanat Julotok (@PKZAIT)

  • Naveed Haq

    • Compromised IoT devices, such as webcams or even lightbulbs, can be used to form “botnets”, networks of Internet-connected externally controlled devices. These devices, referred to in this context as “bots”, are often infected with malicious software and used for disruptive or criminal purposes. Understanding the growing impact that IoT security has on the Internet and its users is critical for safeguarding the future of the Internet. IoT manufacturers, IoT service providers, users, standards developing organizations (SDOs), policymakers, and regulators will all need to take action to protect against threats to Internet infrastructure.

    • One of the key obstacles to improving internet penetration in rural and remote areas is last mile connectivity. The lack of commercial viability, as well as huge network roll-out costs worry operators who are reluctant to make the necessary investments. Community Networks are considered as an excellent supplement solution to address last mile connectivity. They do require a strong support from policy makers and some of the steps that could be taken in this regards are:
      1. Streamline or eliminate related regulatory requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
      2. Expand universal service and other public funding opportunities, and publicize / include community networks as eligible for funding through universal service fund.
      3. Introduce approaches to provide spectrum access and innovative licensing for community network operators.
      4. Encourage community initiatives to build networks aiming to reduce digital divide.

      It is also important to consider that not one solution can work / can apply everywhere and the most critical aspect behind success of a community network is ‘sustainability’ that usually comes with a supporting business model.

    • One of the issues discussed during the week was routing security. Every year, thousands of routing incidents occur, each with the potential to harm user trust and handicap the Internet’s potential.

      Spoofed Internet traffic is a persistent threat, and often the root cause of reflection Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.All stakeholders including policymakers, must take steps to strengthen the security of the global routing system.

      Best practices, like the Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security, provide a clear path for network operators to take towards addressing these routing threats.

      While we action on cybersecurity threats on the Internet application layer, we cannot fail to Protect the Core (technical layer)

    • [WS55.Community Networks] One of the key obstacles to improving internet penetration in rural and remote areas is last mile connectivity. The lack of commercial viability, as well as huge network roll-out costs worry operators who are reluctant to make the necessary investments

      Policy makers and Regulators can facilitate initiatives like Community Networks to bridge last mile connectivity gaps by:

      – Streamlining or eliminating regulatory requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
      – Provide tax, customs, regulatory, and licensing fee exemptions.
      – Provide clear, public guidance on the specific policies and regulatory requirements (and exemptions) for community networks.
      – Expand universal service and other public funding opportunities to community networks.
      – Introduce innovative approaches for licensing and spectrum access

    • The United Nations estimates that one in six people live with disability – that is a total of 650 million women, men and children in the Asia-Pacific region.

      People with Disability (PWDs) face various challenges in accessing the Internet based on their impairment. For example, persons with visual impairments can face compatibility challenges when screen reader software is used to access visual displays that are not labelled or hyperlinks that do not make sense when read out of context.

      If designers of digital technologies and content keep accessibility at the heart of design activities, people with disability can be empowered to do more themselves, without having to rely on others. In contrast, if designers miss out on accessibility, they continue to develop products and content that increases barriers for people with disability when using digital technologies and content.

      Although, there are known and easy to implement guidelines to address the barriers, many developers of web content, mobile applications and related digital technologies usually do not consider people with disability while designing or updating their products. With such a large number of the population with disabilities, businesses are potentially losing out if accessibility issues are not considered, and the universal design concept is not understood and adopted. Universal design means that businesses improving consumer products such as hardware, software, websites and applications to make them usable for a broader section of the community including people with disability, in turn, gain reach to a much larger consumer base in more situations.

      It is very important to recognize PWDs as one of the stakeholders in the development of policies and technologies, and to educate the community (especially content developers) about the importance of equal access for PWDs. Promoting digital accessibility contributes to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and ensure that the rights of PWDs are met.

    • Diminishing trust is a challenge for the Internet – all of the creativity and innovation we see on the Internet is based on users trust. Internet of Things (IoTs) will play a crucial role in maintaining this trust.

      Poorly secured IoT devices and services can serve as entry points for cyber attacks, compromising sensitive data and threatening the safety of individual users. Understanding the growing impact that IoT security has on the Internet and its users is critical for safeguarding the future of the Internet.

      Many organizations are working hard on IoT security and privacy issues, but there is a need for all stakeholders, including policymakers, manufacturers, and consumers, to make good choices about the future of IoT and security.

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  • Nestor Boniche Gonzalez

  • NetMission Ambassadors

  • NetMission on YIGF

    • Redefined Youth Participation – Refine and rediscover  a new model to youth participation beyond current practices for better integration rIGF and related youth IGF. Models like small-scale group discussion are effective in closing the gap between youth delegates and rIGF delegates. At the same time, it is important to recognize the language barriers and to encourage the production of related conference material in local languages (if possible).

  • Nguyen Ngoc Trang

    • The challenges faced by students with disabilities (SWDs) worsened by COVID-19:
      1. Lack of digital literacy a lack of sign language interpreters. Students with visual learning material lack of competence in using screen readers.
      2. Difficulty using learning platforms and course exams or assessment. Students with visual impairments experienced a lack of descriptions for informative images in teaching notes, and difficulties in using learning management systems.
      3. Difficulty communicating with support services, faculty/instructors and fellow students when SWDs live in family homes.

  • Nigel Hickson

  • Nina Nakaora

    • Librarian supports multiliteracies and assists learners become better inquirers and ethical creators of information.

      With adequate funding and training, libraries are in a unique position to do support information literacy and digital literacy. I shared my story to highlight that it can be done in the Pacific.

    • School librarians support multiliteracies and assists learners become better inquirers and ethical creators of information.

      With adequate funding and training, libraries are in a unique position to support information literacy and digital literacy. I shared my story to highlight that it can be done in the Pacific. *Why can’t digital literacy and information literacy work together? If you’re rolling out digital literacy initiatives, work with your public, community and school libraries. Better still work with the National Library to roll these initiatives out.

  • Noelle de Guzman

    • The encryption debate must be set against the wider context of the region’s efforts to make the Internet more accessible, secure and trustworthy.

      As IG stakeholders, we must ensure that policies that impact the Internet do so positively, and contribute to its growth as an enabler and a force for good for APAC societies and economies.

      The policies that have been enacted in APAC (TOLA and Revised IL Rules), undermine a core technology, encryption, that underpin the Internet’s security, and the security of everyone on the Internet.

      These policies create opportunities for wider surveillance and data collection, more potent cyberattacks, and greater online abuse.
      They impair businesses’ ability to compete regionally and in the global market, as recent studies show [https://www.internetsociety.org/resources/doc/2021/the-economic-impact-of-laws-that-weaken-encryption/]

      These come at a time of APAC’s ever growing reliance on the Internet to run governments and businesses, respond to citizens’ needs, and to be an overall lifeline in a world increasingly shaped by the ongoing pandemic.

      The challenges that spur these policies are important, but these are broad and long-standing societal problems predating the Internet, and cannot be solved by weakening security for everyone.

  • Nusrat Mehajabin

  • Nuwan Waidyanatha

    • Given the volume of IOT devices, it is difficult for regulators to validate the security of each device. Would be similar to testing every brand and variation of items in a grocery market shelves. Self regulation by identifying who does comply with IOT security standards and other guidelines is necessary. While ISOC is taking an initiative to provide such checklists; possibly the National CERTs could be the ones responsible for providing tools and guidelines for the consumers.

    • Community Networks are proven and are becoming a trend. Perhaps some discussion is necessary. While community networks were a session in 2018 APrIGF it was also a session in 2017; specifically supporting ICT resilience and emergency communication. Community networks were also identified as means for solutions for landlocked and small developing islands. The backhaul for such networks would come from big players like Facebook, Google.

  • Pablo Hinnojosa

    • ADD question:
      How the Internet (the Internet sector, but more importantly, the Internet community) can have the most positive impact in the Environment?

    • Some issues to help frame global IGF Environmental Theme:
      a) incentives for sharing data by public and private sectors as digital public goods
      b) environmental data governance
      c) collaborative environmental analytics (citizen science and open datasets)
      d) AI-algorithm transparency for data integration and analytics for digital public goods
      e) dealing with misinformation and fake news about the environment
      f) e-waste and product lifecycle
      g) early warning systems, disaster recovery and emergency response, specially in the Pacific

    • At the workshop today, WS89 “Whois” collected, disclosed and protected: How we care about protecting data privacy?”, there are elements about Whois that had to do with cybersecurity, specially the use of Whois for traceability and attribution. However, not only Law Enforcement Agencies use the Whois for this purpose. There are other entities, such as CERTs, that use Whois to monitor behavior regularly but, importantly, for incident response purposes. It is important that CERTs have access to Whois, as public accessibility might be restricted due to privacy considerations.

    • During workshop WS89 “Whois” collected, disclosed and protected: How we care about protecting data privacy?” we discussed how privacy considerations have been strengthened in light of the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), an European set of privacy rules that have impacted the way Whois publishes personal information of Domain Name holders. These rules are not limited to Europe but have extraterritorial enforceability, adding new considerations to ICANN contracted parties, such as Registries and Registrars, that need to comply with both, the GDPR and their contractual agreements with ICANN. This has trumped community-led policy development processes at ICANN, requiring an expedite process for Registrar and Registrars to agree on new policies for their Whois services to comply with GDPR. It is important to improve monitoring capability of future legislation that may have impact on services such as Whois; but also prevent that multistakeholder processes be overturned by regulatory processes.

    • Perhaps could be good, in an introductory paragraph, a mention to the presentation by Vint and Chengetai about the recent launch, by the UN Secretary General, of the High Level Panel on Digital Cooperation. The APrIGF community may acknowledge the Panel and appreciate the efforts by Chengetai and Vint to reach out to this community and the mapping of different issues. Perhaps we can also set some expectations about the level of openness, inclusiveness and transparency in which the panel will be working; and also perhaps recommend that the voice of the HLP is very much welcomed, but not necessarily representative of the multistakeholder community.

    • At the “Know Your Net – Enabling A-Z competences with Net Tech in the Pacific” workshop there was an excellent discussion about three critical challenges that the Internet is facing in terms of its future stability and security. These are: IPv6, DNSSEC and routing security. The future of the Internet highly depends on the successful implementation of policies and best practices and the increased implementation of these three critical measures.

    • Actually, on second thoughts, this mention to the HLP can more appropriately be placed in the section on Multistakeholder Participation in Internet Governance (???).

    • Agree, John Jack! Perhaps it deserves a mention in the report that there has been a most positive development, in the recent 2-3 years, as new CERTs are being established in the Pacific. Tonga, PNG and Vanuatu are three great examples on inclusive CERT developments that bring great cybersecurity benefits to the community.

    • Paragraph #2 is quite negative to the Internet. While consideration of risks and threats is important, it is best to address the Internet evolution in a positive light and find opportunities in every threat. Possible rephrase:

      One of the main themes discussed at the APrIGF in Vladivostok, was peaceful collaboration towards a safer Internet. This included questions such as (paragraphs 2 and 3):

      How can the Internet community participate more actively in the international cybersecurity discussions and encourage more co- operative measures? What shall the digital ethics be for businesses? How shall we take into account the concept of public goods and the commons vs. data ownership and privatization of knowledge? How can we keep the positive elements of “localized” Internet while being aware of its downsides? To enhance trust and security, how can we enhance the capacity building effort and how do we bridge the gap between technical and non-technical understanding of securing the Internet?

      While there are growing concerns on issues such as misinformation, fake news, hate speech and harassment, online violence and terrorism, organized cybercrimes, market concentration in cloud services, data breaches resulting in a decrease of trust as well as a wave of state regulations to mitigate the cybersecurity risks. To maintain cyber hygiene, what kind of policies and governance model shall be adopted to tackle these issues and achieve a safer Internet? What should be the key considerations for states when creating these regulations? How shall we maintain legal interoperability of laws and extraterritorial data protection on the Internet? Should the Internet be regulated by the states solely and what is the impact of these existing regulations on the Internet? How should the balance be drawn between state interference on Internet infrastructure and a free and open Internet?


    • This is an improved version which I support.

    • Perhaps move purpose of synthesis document BEFORE the Introduction?

    • Not sure the right term is “transnational”. Question can be rephrased as: Does this needs to be regulated by International Law?

    • A closing paragraph is needed, also to reflect how the Synthesis Document can help to connect APrIGF with the global IGF, also to include statistics of how many people registered and participated at the APrIGF and general statements about the success of the event and the vibrancy of the community.

  • Pankaj Sharma

    • Embracing a digital circular economy makes strong business sense and presents opportunities for entrepreneurship.
      By adopting practices like product leasing, refurbishment, and component reuse, businesses can tap into new revenue streams and markets.
      Designing products with durability and repairability in mind can enhance brand reputation and customer loyalty. Circular strategies often lower operational costs through reduced resource consumption and waste management expenses.
      Moreover, embracing a circular economy fosters innovation, encouraging entrepreneurs to develop novel technologies and services in areas like sustainable materials, efficient resource recovery, and reverse logistics.

  • Paribhasha Pradhan

  • Paul Wilson

  • Pavitra Ramanujam

    • The session brought up many important issues related to ensuring that internet governance spaces like the APrIGF are inclusive and welcoming of new entrants:

      1. For many who are interested in internet governance, spaces like the APrIGF seem daunting as they feel their lack of expertise or experience on these issues prohibits them from making a meaningful contribution. For them, programs like APSIG are very important but are not always accessible. There was a consensus on the importance of having more programs like this that build capacity of internet governance practitioners who are new to the field.

      2. Diversity is critical in APrIGF and other internet governance spaces but it is not only enough to have diverse representation in the room, it is also important that the conditions for them to meaningfully participate are created. For instance, provisions for language, disabilities and creating awareness among the broader audience about being mindful and sensitive to the needs of diverse groups.

      3. People need sustained opportunities to participate in spaces like APrIGF. One of the key factors is the lack of availability of resources. For instance, fellowships allow individuals only one-time opportunity to participate in IG spaces like APrIGF but it doesn’t provide opportunity for sustained engagement. There is a need to allocate more resources to allow new people to participate but also allow for sustained participation of groups.

      4. Online engagement has been very important in the context of the pandemic, and it is also much more accessible for many people and groups; however, it doesn’t compare to being in these spaces in person since that is the only way to truly understand how they function, to meet people, build a network and engage meaningfully, without feeling disconnected from the process.

      5. The APrIGF is a multi-stakeholder process but it doesn’t have equal representation from all stakeholders. Important stakeholders like the government and private sector are not as engaged as they ideally should be. There is a need to engage them more actively to bring them into the conversation. Similarly, there is a need to engage under-presented groups and regions within Asia. The work of the stakeholder engagement committee is very important in this regard.

      6. Internet governance in Asia is not just the APrIGF. The APrIGF is not a decision-making forum but a discussion forum. A lot of important decisions around the internet get made in other spaces and at the national level. New entrants must learn about and engage more in these processes as well, especially at the national level and push for more change there.

      7. The APrIGF is a space for everyone, irrespective of their background, identity or expertise. Anyone interested in this process can and should become a part of it by joining the MSG and other committees, so that newer and more diverse voices can shape its future.

    • The session highlighted some key points on the state of digital rights in different countries in the region post-pandemic:

      1. There has been a backsliding of democracies, with increase in human rights violations, censorship and surveillance particularly through digital technologies.

      2. The pandemic proved to be opportunity for many states to increase surveillance – this has been done through unfiltered collection of data from health tracking applications, laws and policies that give states greater control over people’s data and the ability to obtain such data without regard to privacy and data protection norms and the use of spyware such as pegasus on activists, journalists and other dissidents. Governments are using public funds to purchase spyware from other countries to use on their citizens without any legal oversight or accountability.

      3. Civic space online is shrinking along with an increase in censorship and arrests of citizens for online expression, particularly expression criticising the state.

      4. Hate speech and misinformation online, targeting particular individuals and groups, is being used as a political weapon to influence public discourse and sway elections.

      5. On the other hand, there is also a growing awareness among people, especially online and through the internet, of their rights, particularly with respect to privacy and their data.

      6. Increasingly, people are using online spaces to discuss, mobilise and coordinate to fight for their rights and hold states accountable.

      7. There is a need for an international recognition of this problem of digital authoritarianism and its rise in Asia, particularly as it pertains to sale and purchase of surveillance technologies by private companies to states and other entities.

      8. There is also a need for strong data protection frameworks in countries across the region that not only protect internet users from private companies but also the collection and use of their data by the state.

  • Peerarust Siriamphan

    • Even though it’s a very good idea to help the people with lack of English skill to be able to access to internet easily but from my experience now people with lack of English skill still have the ability to access to the internet. For example if they want to search for the information there is a google app on the mobile phone. Both iOS and Android system have local language instruction. They don’t really remember what URL the website have all there care about is the tittle and short description on Google.
      For the EAI, for Thailand. I have ask some of my friend and all of them never know about IDN and EAI and they are all don’t interested in having local language email or domain. If I have any chance to interview people from more rural area I will updated here.

  • Phyo

    • The community-based network systems are still controversial among stakeholders but on the other hand, having those kinds of network systems can provide more Internet coverage areas. The huge digital divide among developed and developing countries is needed to reduce by collaborating and working together. Also, when the users have the right to connect online, Internet connectivity should be a human right. Multi-stakeholder have to be seriously considered for any kinds of human rights violations such as Internet shutdowns forwarding to the inclusion.

    • Climate Change is related to every nation. There is no Planet B according to the UN. So, both developing and developed countries need to collaborate for a green economy by means of looking forward to our future.

    • I think building information literacy skills is related to the interpretation of the local languages. When we are trying to empower people for building their trust and well-being through digital information literacy skills, using the local language cracked version learning and development materials are the most effective way to enhance these skills. On the other hand, the costly translation and interpretation are the challenges for it.

    • Awareness is the first step to advocate for people before implementing policy and regulations regarding the impacts of digitalization on climate change. When people are starting aware of it and understand its impacts, they will get involved in the implementation of the policy and regulations process for reducing the carbon footprints, especially, young people.

  • Prasanth Sugathan

    • Online Harassment

      Efforts are required involving all stakeholders to make the Internet a safe space for all, including the voices of the minorities. Solutions to online harassment can take many forms, such as victims speaking out about their abuse, better community standards by social media companies, digital security precautions, self-help strategies, stricter laws, and better efforts by law enforcement agencies.

    • Algorithmic Transparency

      Algorithms form a basic part of data analysis and artificial intelligence. They are made by various entities in order to analyse data and make use of data for purposes such as profiling, showing targeted advertisements, showing relevant search results, as well as performing automated tasks such as those performed by self-driving cars.
      Disclosure of algorithms can facilitate governments, researchers and the general public in understanding what kinds of data is used and how that data is used, leading to an increase in privacy awareness through openness and transparency.

  • Praveen

    • Internet is not something which is created by single entity, it’s a wish, work and infrastructural development of every stakeholder, but unfortunately most of the Internet infrastructure is owned by private corporations rather than the civil society. Majority of Internet infrastructure is copyrighted. So it’s the responsibility of governing bodies to make the basic infrastructure which builds the Internet under the Open access and accessible to the public.

  • Priyatosh Jana

  • Prof. Rakesh Mehrotra

  • Qurra Tul Ain Nisar

    • As World is struggling to develop an education system completely dependent on internet. we, as students, are being inculcated with a sense that internet is our new strength; as our future depends on it. However, we are and never in past were taught about internet ethics & ground rules. Educating about ground rules can not only solve hate speech but also encourage better use of social media platforms.

    • Utilising user’s data for business purpose might be economically beneficial but it is greatly putting people’s trust at risk. They feel monitored by technology. There is a common feeling among people that internet sells their personal data for the sake of economic benefits.

    • Till the date, in the remote areas of my country if a woman owns an electronic gadget its considered a taboo. People question their character just on the basis of owning it. Many girls were made to completely disconnect from education when pandemic started and education shifted to online grounds completely. Not just the girls, old people and even old teachers in school feel hesitated to teach on the internet and are made fun of for trying. They were thrown in the digital space without adequate assistance when pandemic started. Awaring people that Internet is not just a source of entertainment, but it is also a vast boundless medium for education sounds like the solution. But the question is how can internet educate people who don’t have access to it in the first place.

    • During the session, Gaya educated enough about violence on the internet. She mentioned a suitable approach on solving hate speech. As it is obvious that education is the biggest answer for solving hate speech on the internet so simply blocking one’s access from a particular social media platform for voilating the “terms and condition” isn’t enough. One needs to talk and educate that person and let them know how their words not just stay confined to solid grounds of technology but also reach a human just like them.

    • Lack of high speed internet in Kashmir has deprived many students of their basic right (education). Due to strict lockdown imposed on them way before the pandemic and the hampered internet connection before and even during the pandemic till date has affected their progress rate on the internet.

  • Rafiq

    • Internet shutdowns have become a powerful tool for oppression of opposition and their increase in the region is part of an authoritarian trend. Examples from Myanmar, Bangladesh and India shared in this session are very powerful – and there are other countries taking the same path. The international community must take a firm stance on this issue to mitigate harms and establish safeguards.

  • Rafiq Copeland

    • I think it is important that we include and highlight ‘language’ as a category that limits access to technology and is a barrier to full inclusion online. Much of the internet is in English. Important tools, technologies, apps and platforms still lack localization into major non-european languages. And if you come from a linguaistic minority within a global majority country, then forget it. Worldwide, 87% of people do not speak English as either a first or second language. In Asia almost 35% of people are still not online – you can bet that those people without access are non-English speakers, and that people from linguistic minorities are over-rerepresented among those without connectivity. As we think about specific emerging technologies (in the next paragraph) we need to think about localization and how these will be made inclusive for non-English speakers and especially linguistic minorities.

    • There is an urgent need for clear industry guidelines for how civil society engagement should take place. A lack of mutually agreed expectations between industry and civil society has contributed to frustration and lack of trust. Some companies do almost no engagement, whilst even those that do a lot comparitively (i.e. Meta) often fail to follow through effectively, which leads to its own frustrations. In the case of escalation channels such as trusted flagger programs lack of clear expectations and performance benchmarks can result in serious harms when companies do not respond in timely or considerate fashion (plugging research on trsuted flaggers’ experience here: https://internews.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/07/SafetyAtStake_Internews.pdf). Clear industry standards around processes such as policy consultation or trusted flagger programs would build trust and improve outcomes for all stakeholders.

    • A complex issue here is that while the global community is pushing for regulation of tech platforms, in many countries in the region (and globally) governments are using regulation of online content as a way to limit freedom of expression and other human rights, especially targeting activists, journalists, women, and minorities. The focus on regulation in EU, NZ, Australia, etc. has made it harder for companies to push back on bad regulation in other regions (to the limited extent that they did). The companies are being forced to invest $$ in compliance in EU, and seem to be cutting voluntary human rights and trust and safety programming in the rest of the world. Regulators in one juristiction need to be mindful of impacts elsewhere, as the tech companies are global in scope.

  • Rajat

  • Rajnesh Singh

  • Raman Jit Singh Chima

  • Renata Aquino Ribeiro

  • Rex Makusia

  • Reysa

  • Rilla Gusela Sumisra

    • – Broaden the ethics education (more to algorithm ethic) to engineer/ IT students to government because the universities or schools are officially recognized or by ministry of education in their own countries. Recommendation: The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (“the Code”) expresses the conscience of the profession.
      – Broaden/ categorize ethical issues , because this is not only computing that included. For example such as Product design, coding/programing, operational handling content because the data is from all background

    • WS50:
      – There are some countries which started to give regulation about crypto assets and some are not. We may need structured model for govern crypto assets because if we don’t have the model it will be difficult to define. But it’s also already provided by internet draft IETF before.

      – For crypto assets governance, The Important point is the communication among business and engineers, It is not easy to solve but it’s important to start communicate each other.

      – If there will be new crypto currency platform released, we should concern about the users and security, for example Libra from Facebook including WhatsApp, Instagram, and Messenger, targeted to be able to transact with Libra starting in early 2020. However, it is not yet clear whether the availability is simultaneous worldwide or gradually in several countries first. But the main point is where almost all Facebook and those social media users is in the youth categories, so It’s important for giving awareness and education and comprehensive information about cryptocurrency in our communities

    • WS30
      – There are a lot of methods of AI, IoT and IT Technologies. The importance is what is the real definition of ethics, and what are ethics for coders and we have to concern that if ethic definition always changing
      – Innovation is important, as well as innovation of permission while maintaining algorithm accountability
      – Building communities that can help the programmer/ future developers and engineers after graduation maintain of algorithm ethics of the behind computing machine

    • WS37. Is e-Government an effective mechanism for developing economies

      – People need simple, fluent, integrates e-government services or we could state that importance of basic info needs first to support life capabilities. The thing to need attention while constructing E-government is there must be right people or who understand the functions of social institutions and society. Besides, we have to see what must be caught such as emerging trends and issues. For example, in the Pacific, the most important thing is to have a connection. Even though there are connections but still limited and few. and it should be noted that there are still few people working on the ICT. E-government is capable of work with ICT companies in their respective regions to achieve effective e-governance and digital economic growth. If it has already been implemented, the most important thing is to increase securities in the system / app in e-government because using a real name system, we can conclude ideally is the resilience of and sustainable system.
      – Fiji 5 Years transformation online. Digital transformation program to bring government services online, such as online record of birth, death and marriage, business and company registration, etc.
      – In Indonesia, for example of government applications in education sector are government library app which we could rent e-book from this app, public school enrollment can be done online for junior and senior high school level. In health sector, there is Online Self registration in the public hospitals to make an appointment with doctor, etc.
      – For those who have just started an e-government website, for example, several countries in the Pacific island can be made with recommendations from several websites from other countries and analyze what features which must to have, good to have or not particularly, Examples for must to have are main news page, weather forecast, focus on tourism (by occupation) simplify the website topics, sign up and log in, Message us, Contact, FAQ, Health topics, search engine. For good to have are Education sites, Every Drop Counts, Text to speech for disability people, Social Media, E-services of government information.

    • • WS9. Parallel Workshop: Build Concept on AI and Society for good Global

      The concept from academic aspect is the curriculum that could influence learning process of building concept on AI, maybe only some countries in Asia Pacific have implemented it, but not at all and now starting to be implemented.

      The awareness methods could be formal and informal training. For examples of formal training are such as open online class and supplement lesson. For informal training from tutorials or videos on internet that we can access by our self and make group of club to give this knowledge.
      AI is not the new things for programmer, therefore to deepen practices on developing AI products, they should more explore and take the initiatives to be professionals and not only depend to the lessons in the universities. the result that can be achieved for example such as competition that could maximize their knowledge which they already receive at class and school, and the integral projects which can give the best solutions towards Sustainable Development Goals and some kind of issues such as poverty and disaster recovery and others.
      As we know AI helps economic and industry sectors more convenience in advertising and analyzing the data. It could be said that machine learning and open data will help global system development. This world is AI lace but not all countries pay attention about inclusion problem, we need to focus on AI economies and we have to improve security and privacy protection.

    • WS22. IoT Security – A Differentiator for Consumers

      – Based on some reports and news, there are some IoT Technologies which are not implement strong security. that are compromised by hackers even as homes and businesses continue to add these and other connected devices to their networks and it was realized that most challenges were of privacy/confidentiality and data integrity. Based on those issues, the companies should improve from layer security, framework and platform devices.
      – There is the fact that innovation of IoT products could help people with disability but we also have to concern about the security and who will be responsible for facilitate this concern
      – The raising awareness about security in IoT. At least consumers understanding about what data will they give, term and agreements with the IoT services and strengthen transparency accountability of IoT manufacturers about information of their IoT Products and integrity .
      – There is no real regulation about differentiator for customer on IoT, bringing companies to participate/ involve or maybe it would be better if they had a common framework. The movement that we can do is work together

  • Rodrigo Balbontin

    • I’d add the importance of an overarching policy framework for supporting digital inclusion.

      See section 4 of this document published during APrIGF, where we propose guidelines for policy response:
      • a collaborative policy framework focused on an enabling digital environment
      • investing in digital infrastructure to expand internet access and affordability
      • promoting digital skills at all levels to close inequality gaps
      • raising awareness of online risks to take full advantage of connectivity
      • supporting adoption and innovation policies to take full advantage of digitalization


    • The integration of marginalized communities does not end with Internet connectivity and providing access to new digital tools, such as e-commerce. Inclusion means benefiting from digitalization in all its dimensions, not only as end users. With appropriate policies and a local-based approach focusing on marginalized communities’ needs, innovation can flourish, and digitalization can spur local entrepreneurs and startups, multiplying the economic impact in the communities.

      Underserved communities face market access challenges and lack access to financial tools to support local entrepreneurship. Moreover, local nuances, language barriers, and cultural and behavioral issues make digital adoption and entrepreneurship particularly challenging and context-based. These adoption constraints can be minimized when digital solutions are developed within the community and by local entrepreneurs. People from underserved communities are talented and innovators, and they can solve the digital adoption challenges if appropriate policies and market incentives are provided.

      The constraints for digital adoption are particularly expressed among indigenous people’s communities, where the lack of context-based solutions from some apps does not match with the societal cosmovision of the communities. For example, the relevance of a long-term intergenerational view to define the present, the lack of apps in local languages, or the underlying biases in new AI developments. Biases are embedded in the technologies, and they will persist unless marginalized communities are part of the entrepreneurship ecosystem.

      Finally, the digital tool itself can promote inclusion. For example, apps can help women entrepreneurs in underserved communities to avoid the “middleman” market power issue by connecting them with new markets. But these cases will only be sustainable if there is a long-term commitment to expand access, spur competition, and take into account local voices.

  • Rohana Palliyaguru (Sri Lanka)

  • Rohini Lakshané

    • The selected sessions did not have enough and pronounced coverage of gender or sexuality as a topic that intersects with Internet governance issues, digital rights etc. The UN IGF has a Gender BPF (Best Practices Forum). The APrIGF could possibly consider a gender thematic track or BPF.

    • Several human rights were derogated and continue to be derogated by governments in different countries across the world in order to control the Covid-19 pandemic and ensure the fundamental right to health and life. The derogated rights include but are not limited to the right to peaceful assembly, the right to peaceful protest, the right to privacy, freedom of movement and residence, the right to work, and the right to education. These rights were affected by lockdowns, travel restrictions, restrictions on movement, quarantine requirements, the closure of workplaces, schools and sites of economic activity, among other things.

      In many cases, governments contracted/ collaborated with or relied on private companies to develop, operate, or repurpose technological interventions that were expected to help contain the spread of the disease. Many of these interventions were existing technological products meant for mass surveillance, the prevention or control of crime and the enforcement of security. Some businesses adopted technological measures internally in their workplaces and sites in order to contain the disease and ensure smooth operations.

      Businesses are required to respect human rights. Thus, they should be mindful of the human rights that are affected by the interventions, services and products that they design, produce, implement or operate.

  • Rom Kant Pandey

  • S L Narasimhan

  • Sachini Perera

  • Salanieta Tamanikaiwaimaro

    • In addition in 2018, the High Level Political Forum at the UN HQ in New York will be an opportunity for the National Regional IGF Initiatives (NRIs) to showcase how this is achieved on a practical level around the world.

    • On the issue of Access. there are a host of organizations who are involved across the multistakeholder environment who deal with “Access”. At the WSIS 2017, Chinese Multinational Corporations such as Huawei presented on how they intend to connect the next billion. You have IGOs that have diverse strategies on bridging the digital divide but what we want to do is (in IGF fashion) allow for the opportunity to synergize efforts to bring development whether at policy level, infrastructure level, technical standards, innovation at the edge etc. Asia Pacific is on the cutting edge of development with crypto banks in Malaysia, and Indonesia happens to be chair of the UN 2nd Committee which looks after the Addis Ababa Agenda which was passed by the UNGA. However with Accessibility there are issues of inclusion and threats that come with growing Access which require mitigation.

    • China has recently introduced law banning VPNs which pose as a threat to freedom of expression or freedom from surveillance by the State. Other countries have for years attempted to stifle accessibility by internet shutdowns and we have seen this in the deliberate throttling of the internet in Iran, internet shutdowns in countries like Pakistan, attempted banning of You Tube and Facebook etc in other countries.

    • Countries are not obliged to respect international law only those which they have ratified. We cannot impose they respect the conventions. But what needs to happen is that the NRIs are afforded a unique opportunity to dialogue within their communities and advocate for an open and free internet. However, something that has been missing are international minimum standards that the global community can agree to abide by in diverse areas including but not limited to privacy, data protection, surveillance, inclusivity etc.

    • The jump from para 12 to para 13 is disjointed. Para 13 is clearly referring to cyber crime. There should be mention on the need for Digital or Electronic Evidence rules, issues of admissibility, uniform timestamping protocols, judicial training etc.

    • I mentioned something on Privacy in a previous comment in relation to the banning of VPNs in China…etc. There was also discussion in the remote chat during the APrIGF about the need to regulate agreements and create international minimum standards. For instance telcos and providers at the edge or OTT onsell customer information etc. So it’s not just government doing surveillance but private sector as well. The NRIs are well positioned to foster and engage in dialogue in the macro APrIGF level as well as in their respective jurisdictions to engage in elaborate discussion.

  • Sam

    • Strong encryption of our stored personal data, and end-to-end encryption, is critical if we are to have trust in the internet and services connected via the internet. We need to carefully consider the long-term impact of ideas such as client-side scanning, and keep watch on actors that are pushing to break or weaken encryption and the protection of our data and communications.

    • It is important that we detect when ‘online safety’ is weaponised by regulators to undermine privacy. The nefarious use of the internet and its services is very real and needs to be addressed. It’s important our countries resource investigators, law-enforcement and civil society organisations properly to conduct investigations, instead of taking a ‘techno-solutionist’ approach to addressing ‘online safety’.

    • Platforms appear to siding with state actors in many countries in Asia, and not protecting the rights of their users. Individual privacy/data protection and civic freedoms can co-exist. However, domestic regulations that force the social media platforms to not use personal data points and behaviours to target harmful advertising should be considered by civil society as a way to hold platforms more accountable.

  • Samik Kharel

    • Civil society in parts of this region have been politically inclined or funded by the donor agencies in line with their interests. Terms like ” resilient” is only used to the community which are “vulnerable”. Shrinking civil space in these contexts is due to fragmented civil society, which lack the a non biased position and independent views. Keeping civil society independent is a gargantuan task in developing Asian countries.  

    • These is an urgent need of proper “digital workers union” which will make gig economy fair. In many countries, gig workers outnumber other workers(civil services, army, police, doctors, government workers) combined. A model which is balanced between service, sharing and sustenance should be discussed.

    • Access to the internet is the major issue. This is a confusing topic.2.9 billion which makes 37 percent of the world population still have no access. As envisioned by SDG target 9.c clearly states in the “increase access to information and communication technologies and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the internet in least developed countries by 2020”. But many are still left behind. In not just internet technologies help achieve SDGs, but SDG ensures everyone has access first. Both work on symbiosis.

    • These technologies which have been deployed by the government during the pandemic have mostly been instituted, and now are thriving to be used for other purposes. This is a great danger. The Covid -19 also created a race amongst governments in Asia, to embark into digital authoritarianism.

    • I don’t know if “regulation” is the right term and I do not see in anyway todays social media can be regulated by a government or in this case election commission. In case of paid contents for campaigning, the start can be to label them well as political media content and clearly term them as info-advertisements. The election commissions/ election bodies should be willing to deploy “digital election observers” to monitor the content.

  • Samridh Kudesia

    • I want to raise the dilemma that I as a consumer face on a daily basis. While I would like to use local, smaller vendors for their online services so that the bigger corporate giants do not form a monopoly, I am also aware that these small vendors might not be able to keep my data as secure as the bigger companies could. This is a conflict, and I would love for the community to come up with a way to resolve this issue.

  • Samuel Akinsola

    • This is a stage we can appreciate and manage the internet and its resources for a better use.

      There are alot of diversities with the internet but all works for our advantage if we know just how and when to use it.

      We cannot forget the stone age, centuries ago where thinking level was just sifficient for that era and in this age we need something very admirable and that can make us discover the future. The internet is its name and it has its starting point.

      Evolution is caused by thinking change that will effect the human race. The internet has totally brought change that has affected the way we dress, behave and think; what of the way we learn? it is drastically changing. Notwithstanding we need a way of curbing its consequencies to work for our good at all times.

      The ineternet has provided a platform to commit subtle crime, more secretive more conscious, yet it has not changed our uniqueness as humanbeigns.

      I really appreciate the topic for the 2015 and hope it serves even a better purpose to grass root local communities around the continent and the world to be a tool that gives sound information and not to create a decadence in moral statndard.

  • Sanya Reid Smith

    • Therefore we think it is important to build bridges with the trade negotiators and increase their understanding of the technology and the far-reaching implications of these rules. Users and the technical community have not been sufficiently involved in this trade rule-making process on these issues, their voice should be heard (for example via effective stakeholder consultations) and their concerns taken into account. Better engagement of these underrepresented communities is needed in these processes.

    • Governments need to balance many considerations (not just free flow of data for innovation) including the need to require data to be stored locally for a number of reasons including: to investigate tax evasion (eg New Zealand), for privacy (eg Australia), to be able to do timely and effective financial regulation the way the USA couldn’t during the 2008 financial crisis because some Lehman Brothers data was stored in Hong Kong etc.

    • Given the current ecommerce proposals being negotiated at the World Trade Organization (WTO), it makes more sense to replace ‘How can they be harmoniously combined with the existing global trade regimes’? with ‘What are the implications of the international trade rules currently being negotiated in the name of ‘ecommerce’ on the ability to regulate these technologies and development more broadly?’

  • Sara Pek

  • Satish Babu

  • Satish Babu

    • I’d suggest the following additional theme:

      – Sustaining Diversity
      In the movement towards including the Next Billion, it is important to provide for explicit measures to support and conserve existing diversity: linguistic (spoken languages & scripts); cultural; ethnic; and even biological/ecological)

    • While the subthemes are well developed, there appeared to be a bit of disconnect in relating the sub-themes to the main theme of “Merging Physical Space with Cyberspace”.

    • Should we make “…measures to support and conserve existing diversity…” to “…measures to support, conserve and enhance existing diversity…” ?

    • Can we mention Universal Acceptance together with IDNs and EAI? In fact, if we are mentioning IDNs, then IDNs and Universal Acceptance may be sufficient.

    • Towards the end of the paragraph, I’d suggest the following sentence:

      In the case of SIGs, Asia-Pacific has made major strides through multiple regional, subregional and national initiatives including APSIG, MEAC-SIG, inSIG, pkSIG and APIGA. Nevertheless, there is still more effort required in underserved areas of Asia-Pacific.

    • Recommend “…Disruptive innovations such as the Blockchain…”

      Also, in the fourth line from the bottom, the reference to “prohibition…as well as source code disclosure” is unclear. As stated, this is anti-open source, which may be an issue with several parts of the community. Not sure if this was expressly stated in any session…if not, it’s best it’s redacted.

      Finally, the sentiment against data localization (somewhat understandable in terms of possible inhibition of free flow of data) is also problematic, as local communities may prefer data in local languages and formats.

    • Doesn’t it have legal dimensions as well?

    • To clarify, diversity is often enforced through the law.

    • There are formidable challenges that newcomers face in joining global, regional, and national Internet Governance processes. Schools on Internet Governance (SIGs) provide one of the most effective means of onboarding new talent and making them participate effectively in Internet Governance.

      The COVID-19 pandemic has hit most SIGs adversely, whereas a few have taken on the challenge of continuing to operate as earlier although this option was more expensive. Other schools have decided to go virtual, leading to compressed schedules and reduced interactions among participants (which is an important consideration in creating a community of alumni). Some schools have adopted innovations to overcome some of these challenges, including “Meet-and-greet” sessions for Fellows, and inter-sessional lectures for covering specific topics in depth. The pandemic has also seen the creation of a fully virtual SIG targeted at global audiences.

      Some SIGs that used extensively interactive methodologies (such as simulating multistakeholder processes) have been forced to adopt different methodologies including closer integration with actual IG events.

      The COVID-19 pandemic has made the Internet indispensable for the day-to-day lives of people. The breadth and depth of the use of the Internet call for greater participation by all stakeholders in the governance of the Internet. The role of SIGs are therefore even more important in the post-COVID-19 world.

  • Satish Babu