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Comments by Commenter

  • Adeel Sadiq

  • Adli Wahid

  • Adnan

  • Adrian Wan

  • ALI HUSSAIN

  • Alisha Gurung

    • Network shutdown is still happening in the Asia Pacific and when that’s done , general public is completely ok with the government’s decision thinking it must be for them. The general public isn’t aware of their access rights..so a strong awareness with regard to ones access rights is required in the Asia Pacific and in countries like Bhutan where Sig has not been retained yet.

    • We 51 protection of child online: importance of child safely complaints tools

      1) takes about different child abuses like cyber bullying, emotional abuse, sexting, sexual abuse, sexual exploitations, child
      pornography and so on..

      2) talked about iwf(internet watch foundation) which allows people all over the world to report online child abuse.

      3) talked about what solutions can be provided which mostly stated that awareness is the key and the parents, teachers, government and the operators should come together to tackle the issue..

    • We 51 protection of child online: importance of child safely complaints tools

      I would further like to state that cyber security classes should be mandated in all schools by the governments of each nation and more awareness should be made for parents,teachers and also to children on this regard..

  • Amrita Choudhury

    • Public access not only helps to improve digital literacy and provide access to marginalized and under served communities, it also helps to provide “assisted access” to people who are not internet savvy.

    • For ensuring Cyber security, Privacy and Safer Internet, it is imperative that there is collaboration and more emphasis on capacity building among decision makers on the implications of their decisions,

    • A multi stakeholder approach to resolve the issue of universal acceptance is of prime importance. Industry, government, technolologist, academia, civil society, need to come together, discuss and work to resole the issue. It is also very important to take the views of internet users and non users about what they want, since they would be the ones who would use internet in local language in the future.

    • Shut downs leads to social instability, human insecurity and loss of peoples trust in situations often marked with social and political unrest. It is important to measure the impact of internet shut down and also to analyse what situations trigger internet shutdowns and who is given the iscretionary power to do so. Further what are the extreme situtaions when internet can be shut down and what is the process that will be followed needs to be discussed.
      Infact rather than trying to shut the internet Dialogue, transparency and openness to try and find alternate solutions to this difficult issue could be the approach.

    • The gender digital divide should also highlight in access and the strategies which need to be adopted by nations to connect the women, the marginalised and disable.

    • This could perhaps be added after the last sentence , The greatest challenge ………………..skills of participants.

      Another challenge is in scaling up and sustaining these initiatives.

    • Apart from promoting digital literacy there is a need to improve gender rights online too. To improve inclusion especially of women and protect their rights online, a study called “Views & Perspectives on Gender Rights Online, For the Global South” (http://www.ccaoi.in/UI/links/fwresearch/Report of Study on the Views and Perspectives on Gender Rights Online for the Global South Final.pdf), suggests implementation of better and effective policies; encouraging ICT skills and Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) studies amongst women and encouraging digital literacy; policy reforms for ensuring gender inclusive access to the internet; building trust online, including better legislation and enforcement of laws against online harassment; economic incentives to encourage diversity in the workforce; encouraging more engagement amongst women networks and promoting content in local language.

    • Growing misinformation, disinformation, hate speech and harassment is definitely a growing issue. However, there can be no binary solution to this issue.
      Fake news has always been there in our society, the only concern is with the use of technology the reach and impact has dramatically increased.
      Apart from regulations, or companies introducing measures within their products or services to reduce such incidents, capacity building and educating the community on digital etiquette is important. The civil society can play a critical role in this. Also, there is a need for more academic research on these issues – including what motivates some communities to react or spread/ share news while not others, etc.
      It is an issue of the whole community and can only be addressed when the whole multistakeholder community works on it together. Blocking, shutting or restricting the internet will not help.
      Having said that various initiatives are being taken by online companies in tackling these issues. While few have helped, there is more that needs to be done.

    • To be able to address issues of inclusion it is important to have correct data which will help in formulating appropriate strategies so the suitable methodology can approach can be adopted at all levels: building infrastructure, connecting people, addressing social barriers, capacity building. There is also a need for more cooperation between different stakeholders, countries to share data, best practices and have more dialogues. This will help to address many issues.

  • ananda niraula

  • Anastasiya Kazakova

  • Andirauga Paru Nongkas (Andi)

  • Andrew Joe Tungon

  • Andrew Kalman

  • ANG PENG HWA

    • I’m inclined to agree with KS Park that the Right to be Forgotten should not be mentioned at this time. The reason is that it is a right that comes “after” the right of privacy. Without the right of privacy, the RTBF will not be a meaningful right.

    • Addressing Intermediary Liability appropriately is a critical step in enhancing the use of the Internet. To that end, the Manila Principles have been drafted after extensive consultation at the RightsCon 2015. More work needs to be done to put the Manila Principles into practice.

    • I think that specific reference to TPP needs to be removed. Athough the TPP is the first trade agreement for the digital age, the TPP process has, regrettably, been less than exemplary from a multistakeholder perspective.

    • Comment: Minor tweaks, mostly for grammar and clarity. Also, I think replaced the word “balance” because the solution to arriving at a balance is a compromise, which may not be appropriate here. And in keeping with the tenor of competing, I have used that in place of “conflict”.

      The right to be forgotten as a principle must be approached with caution. Significant and competing issues relating to its extraterritorial application, digitised media archives and the integrity of historical records, the rights of individuals and media freedoms must be weighed carefully.

      Moreover, emerging jurisprudence suggests competing public interest as it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for information or intermediaries facilitating that search such as libraries, educational institutions, archives and search engines.

    • Really minor: hyphenate “gender-based”

    • As the opening plenary was on the Gender Divide, perhaps this item should be moved higher if not close to the very top.

    • [Therefore strategies must infrastructure-based]
      A word or phrase is missing.

    • This sentence is clunky. It’s too wordy and this gets in the way of being comprehensible. The suggested edit follows.

      As improved technologies facilitate access for the next billion Internet users, it is important that the individual and collective uniqueness, and the linguistic, geographic and cultural diversity that these new users bring to the Internet be supported, conserved and enhanced through inclusive policy measures such as the universal acceptance of internationalised domain names.

    • [Whether it is security, stability and resilience of the Internet infrastructure or security of network and information systems, , to issues on safety, privacy and data protection, collaboration and capacity building[22] are needed to mitigate[23] and prevent cyber security incidents[24] within and beyond the Asia Pacific region, and the setting of global encryption standards is encouraged[25].]

      Suggested edit.

      Collaboration and capacity building[22] are needed to mitigate[23] and prevent cyber security incidents[24] within and beyond the Asia Pacific region, and the setting of global encryption standards is encouraged[25].]

    • [agreed international conventions and declarations]

      Delete “agreed” on redundancy.

    • [Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45].]

      Recommend moving this up to the start of the paragraph.

    • [Human rights agreements should apply to the Internet environment in the areas of access and development, freedom of expression[39], right to assembly and privacy as well as on the right to information, education, health, culture, and to a broad range of other rights[40] as set out in the WSIS Geneva Declaration of Principles[41], Tunis Agenda for the Information Society[42], and other agreed international conventions and declarations[43].  The impact of existing and emerging laws, policies, and practices on the security of network and information systems, data protection, surveillance, anonymity, intermediary liability and cyber-crime must protect human rights and meet international standards for guarantees.  These issues have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate by all stakeholders at the APrIGF meeting.  The application of human rights should also consider issues of gender, disability, age and sexuality[44].  Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45].]

      Suggested edit.
      Respect for human rights is fundamental to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[45]. Therefore, human rights agreements should apply to the Internet environment in such as set out in the WSIS Geneva Declaration of Principles[41], Tunis Agenda for the Information Society[42], and other international conventions and declarations[43]. These areas include access and development, freedom of expression[39], right to assembly and privacy as well as on the right to information, education, health, culture.  Laws, policies, and practices on the security of network and information systems, data protection, surveillance, anonymity, intermediary liability and cyber-crime must protect human rights and meet international standards for guarantees. The application of human rights should also consider issues of gender, disability, age and sexuality[44]. These issues hwere the subject of intense scrutiny and debate by stakeholders at the APrIGF meeting.  

    • I think “legality of” in the first line should be replaced with “issues of”. The reason is that it seems to be an issue of legality but if so, any illegality can be easily “cured” be passage of a law.

    • Suggest amending the last sentence by adding to it the words in quotation marks:
      At the same time, Internet shutdowns and restrictions are detrimental to the freedom of expression and right of universal access to Internet “and so should be kept to the minimum in duration and in compliance with due process.”

  • Anupam Agrawal

  • APrIGF Secretariat

  • Aris

  • Arthit

  • Arthit Suriyawongkul

  • Arzak Khan

  • Aye Chan San

    • Building trust is not a easy process. Building online trust is much harder since many people are not still familiar with the digital technology.
      Transparency could be one of the solution. Government and private sectors companies should provide them how they are using the data for what purpose. The role of media is also very important in building online trust because people are usually convinced by a lot of media. Once the media mislead some information, it will spread throughout many communities. Therefore, misinformation and disinformation should be strongly restricted by the government by digital laws and regulation.

  • B.KILIC

    • First sentence sounds a bit stretch, digital is one of many enabler for the global economy. We should not forget other enablers such as infrastructure, education, science and technology.

      I think we should distinguish between ” free flow of information” and “free flow of data”. So the sentence can be rephrased as: how do we ensure a successful economy with trust, free flow of data, and appropriate domestic and global rules well balancing privacy, security and other regulatory concerns including financial and tax regulations.

    • First sentence sounds a bit stretch, digital is one of many enabler for the global economy. We should not forget other enablers such as infrastructure, education, science and technology.

      I think we should distinguish between ” free flow of information” and “free flow of data”. So the sentence can be rephrased as: how do we ensure a successful economy with trust, free flow of data, and appropriate domestic and global rules well balancing privacy, security and other regulatory concerns including financial and tax regulations.

    • Sorry this should paragraph 10 not 6. Please ignore this comment

    • In WS105 panel on digital trade and development, concerns were expressed about the implications of the trade rules which have been agreed in recent free trade agreements and proposed at the World Trade Organization such as: cross-border data flows, e-signatures, restrictions on access to source code and algorithms, for: privacy, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, algorithmic bias/discrimination, financial regulation, tax collection, health, environment, competition law etc. It was explained that data should not be treated as a commodity and our rights should flow with the data. There was consensus among the panelists that the trade rules are already out of date compared to the fast-moving technology and would not solve the access, connectivity and affordability challenges in the region.

    • The ‘free flow of data’ narrative should not be considered the default norm. Our data is not a trade commodity and it should not be treated as such. Privacy is a fundamental human right; thus it should flow alongside our data throughout the data life cycle. There should be check and balances to the free flow of data.

    • Our rights should flow alongside our data throughout the data life cycle.

    • People should be in control over their data, no matter where they are and no matter who holds it. Data ownership implies that people can sell away their fundamental rights, including privacy. Thus, we need comprehensive data protection laws and other regulatory mechanisms that are designed to safeguard people, not international businesses nor state control over their citizens. But we also need regulations that encourage healthy competition, not data monopolies.

  • Babu Ram Aryal

  • Bart Hogeveen

  • Ben

  • Benjz Gerard Sevilla

  • Bianca

    • agree with tying in with Global IGF

    • More importantly, the idea is to integrate the YIGF participants as much as possible to the main session. They might not be able to participate confidently in the APrIGF, but they would bring their observations back to their small-scale group discussion. It plants a seed and a path for gradual progress.

    • If go one step further, can also incorporate encouragement of youth to participate in panels to add extra points to the workshop. This mechanism would encourage workshop organisers to add a youth perspective to their workshop.

      Agree on that they should be treated equally as other participants during the conference

    • Also wanted to establish a sustainable initiative and common ground to exchange and to come up with consensus, for example the establishment of an Asia Pacific regional research network focused on child online safety.

  • byoungil oh

  • Can Udomcharoenchaikit

  • Charmaine Lo Kam Yin

    • The advance of technology has undoubtedly brings convenience and benefits to society. However, according to PwC’s Global State of Information Security Survey dated 2015, the cybercrime market worth $114 billion, which is bigger than the cocaine market ($85 billion, quote from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2011). Therefore, I believe it is necessary to evaluate the Cyber Maturity Framework of organizations which provide new technologies prior launching /on a regular basis. The Cyber Maturity Framework consists of four capability areas: Respond, Identify, Detect and Protect).

      Respond:
      Assesses the organisation’s ability to respond and recover from external and internal attacks against its systems and data.

      Identify:
      Assesses the organisation’s ability to understanding the threats and appropriately manage the associated security risk to systems, assets, data and capabilities.

      Detect :
      Assesses the organisation’s ability to detect external and internal attacks of varying sophistication against its systems and data.

      Protect:
      Assesses the organisations ability to implement security controls to reduce the risk of threats being realised (e.g. loss of data or system outage).

    • I believe partnerships and collaborations between different companies and regulators may help the underserve communities and regions to catch up with the pace of digital boom.
      For instance, Ant Financial (Alibaba Group’s mobile payment affiliate) decided to partner with Touch N’ Go to develop their e-wallet rather than break in with Alipay in Maylasia. This can ensure healthy business synergy in both companies. Also, the regulators may consult the fintech companies when building new regulations to ensure the law is down to earth and can be implemented while balancing the business development and cybersecurity.

  • CHEN BINGYU

    • Maybe it will be more comprehensive to add “age” as a variable factor like gender? For example, I think social media platforms Twitter and Facebook and online political events provide more opportunities for the youth to express their opinions and participate in such events. Not only in terms of politics, but also influences the youth culture, making youth subculture attracts more people. Especially in China, we can see a rapid growth of youth subculture texts. Typical examples are meme and idol culture.

    • Some theories of philosophers indicate that the logics of technology heavily influence our traditional logic, preparing us human for digital logic. So, maybe be we can talk about some changes in the definition of our humans, like the studies of “embody” in media and technology.

  • Chen-Yi Tu

    • [Privacy and data protection are critical issues now, especially as they may come into conflict with freedom of expression]

      Is this trying to say “right of privacy” as “universal human right”? If yes, then the correct reference should be Article 13 of 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The freedom of speech is in Article 19. Conflict between privacy and freedom of expression usually discuss in a context of press freedom. I would suggest to frame privacy as enabler of freedom of expression, as in Article 17-19 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

  • Cherie Lagakali

  • Chris Buckridge

    • There are different roles that government, industry (both small and large actors) and other stakeholder groups can play in promoting the adoption of standards. It’s also important to be very clear about the arguments for such adoption and how they are targeted for most effect.

  • Daphne Smithers

    • As discussed in WS 83, Public Libraries are ideal places for Internet access where users can be guided in a secure, inclusive, impartial, free and non-threatening environment. In New Zealand, for example, free Digital Literacy/Skills sessions are commonly held in Public Libraries on specific topics or for marginalised groups. Communities in small developing nations can be empowered through provision of Internet and information access in Libraries.

  • Dawen Obed

  • Debarati Das

    • The word ‘legitimate’ can mean something that ‘conforms to the law’. In many countries (such as India), several consensual and harmless acts online are classified as ‘obscene’, ‘seditious’ etc., and so, ‘illegitimate’ under the law. Can ‘legitimate’ be replaced with ‘ethical’?

    • Here, too, can ‘legitimate’ be replaced with ‘ethical’ because various ethical uses of the internet are wrongfully and unconstitutionally classified as illegitimate under the law in countries like India – such as, laws on obscenity, sedition, unlawful activities etc.

  • Dollapak

    • the name of the program is mislead

      the discussion is interesting but it does not touch the point about what is the hack

      actually, I understand about we will show about idea or prototype of “hacking” government or surveillance. but we just talk about platform for collect violent data.

  • Don

    • With respect to Universal Acceptance…

      The Internet DNS has already provided support for IDNs and they have been in production since 2009.  What needs to happen now, both in respect to IDNs and all new TLDs, is that the developers of computer programmes and systems need to catch up so that they take advantage of these new facilities.

      Readers, including businesses, governments and civil society participants, should make sure that their own systems are UA Ready – that is that they can accept, validate, store, process and display all domain names equally.   This is an issue not just at the top level, but at second and subsequent levels as well.

      They should also encourage their suppliers and the providers of services they use to become UA Ready.

      [NB: This editing application is an example of one that does NOT accept IDN e-mail addresses]

       

       

       

    • Combined efforts from public, private and community sectors is needed to create sustainable initiatives to solve issues of affordable accessibility and digital literacy for all.   Effort is also necessary to support local languages in all facets.  Developments are also necessary is safe and affordable electronic payment facilities to allow everyone to facilitate sustainable activities.

    • A call to action here would be beneficial, calling on Spectrum Managers within each community to de-licence WiFi spectrum.

       

    • Satish, either will be fine, in my view.

    • “Trust” is a challenging term because it’s so broad.   When I first read this, I thought how can we ensure that justice is served when our trust is broken by naughty people?   Communities adopting similar legal frameworks for addressing scams and allowing cross border enforcement would be a way of building Trust.   If you order a book from me, and I don’t deliver, then you should be able to easily pursue remedies.

      But there’s also the Trust of accuracy of information.   And the Trust that the information that I transmit is secure between me and its intended recipient.

  • Don Hollander

  • Don Rodney Junio

  • Doreen Leona

  • Dr.N.Sudha Bhuvaneswari

  • Dustin Sampang

    • The Internet has become a place for people to make a living. One of the platforms for this is video sharing. Popular sites such as YouTube has served as the platform for content creators to generate their own income by means of their own videos, typically funded by ad revenue. What creates issue with this is that there are content creators who rely on the content of other people, adhering to “fair use” as their legal protection. Despite such protection, this does not stop creators to file lawsuits citing copyright infringement. Theft of intellectual property is also an issue that reaps the same consequences. This legal conflict is a threat to the thriving entertainment industry, as well as economic prospects for individuals. Therefore, a clear and detailed criteria on what constitutes as theft of intellectual property should be imposed.

  • Edmon Chung

    • in WS59 a theme emerged around the importance of understanding the dynamics of diversity, in that it changes over time on different issues and as such discussion evolves through stages. That diversity is not an absolute or finite value, and that cultural diversity is highly relevant for the AP region in the global IG context, especially in the development of rough consensus (i.e. to avoid dominant cultural bias causing undue influence over results of discussions given cultures in AP’s tendency towards deference to authorities)

    • WS57 discussed the growing importance of investigating illegal wildlife trade online, and the effectiveness of cross jurisdictional processes are becoming increasingly critical. At the same time though, privacy and other user rights must not be compromised. Industry code of practices are important beyond legislation.

    • WS57 highlighted the merging physical space with cyberspace in the sense that the internet and ecommerce is having a direct impact on wildlife and the environment, (poaching supported by demand from convenience of ecommerce). At the same time ecommerce and elearning can support rural economies to discourage poaching. the SDGs and their interrelation with the Internet and Internet Governance is exemplified by supportive policies and technologies deployed for wildlife conservation (especially as it intersects with rural populations and least developed areas in the proximity of endangered species)

  • Edmon Chung

    • Universal Acceptance is a part of a bigger issue of making sure that the Internet’s Critical Infrastructure protocols evolve over time in an open standards manner. For the synthesis document, I would suggest that we add text suggesting that: Universal Acceptance of Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) and Email Address Internationalization (EAI) for systems online is a matter of priority not only for ensuring that Asia Pacific users can utilize their native language to navigate the Internet, but also as an imperative for the continued evolution of the core Internet infrastructure protocols, including the enhancement of scalability (e.g. IPv6), security (e.g. DNSSEC) and multilingual capability (e.g. IDN) of such protocols.

    • using of AIs regulating Digital Economies

  • Elliott

    • On the impact of the GDPR on the APAC region. Many APAC countries are implementing privacy & data protection laws directly informed by the GDPR (see Indonesia’s proposed law and Australia’s upcoming amendments to the Privacy Act). Very welcome to see this GDPR influence as the digital economy grows faster in APAC than any other region in the world!

    • Particularly on the note of underserved and rural regions, who currently don’t have full access to the digital economy; what happens once the economies of scale which power the non-digital economy cease? What happens when the balance tips in favour of digital transactions, supply chain management and inventory control? Will the non-digital solutions cease and leave the underserved communities behind?

      It’s the job of the internet community to make sure that these communities are not left behind on the march to innovation.

  • Etuate Cocker

  • Farha Diba

  • Felicia Yunike

    • The 1st policy question is too broad and theoretical. It would be better to make comparative approach between de facto and de jure of the national laws to assess its own interpretation in accordance with its provisions. On the other hand, there is a possibility that national law is influenced by conventions or international agreement which subsequently established universally-applied principles. If I were to suggest, the terms “regulations” could be replaced with principles we internationally adopt as a matter of comparison.

    • The 3rd policy question should be narrowed down a little bit as it may create confusion such as the role of government in the protection of human rights online based on what? the regulations? Please point out a context you want to refer to, since I believe that there are various cases that involve the governments with different measures. For example, there is a legitimacy of surveillance under certain conditions (proportionality, necessity, etc).

  • Forest Atkinson

    • Human rights are by universal.  The phrasing “especially the different balance required at different stages of development” should be deleted, as it seems to suggest that the importance attached to human rights varies depending on the stage of development and it is acceptable to trade off cybersecurity against human rights.

  • Gaya

  • Gaya

  • Georges TAUANEARU

  • Gunela Astbrink

  • Hailey YANG

  • Hanyu Yang

    • Internet Governance normally related with the “subject and rules”, it is necessary to sort out who will be get involved in the issue and what rules will be applicable. And more ,it usually expressed by different stakeholders of the internet governance which will related with technology and public policy. Indeed the solution also will be solved by the combination of technologies and policies. In particularly, the technology is the foundation of the internet or cyberspace, and the activities of main parties、 the foundation of the policies also based on the technologies. In addition, the internet governance get the different stakeholders get involved and became globalized which is necessary to consider the factors time and pay attention to the changes in the internet governance system.

  • Harish CHowdhary

    • eUniversal Acceptance issue including E-mail Address Internationalization and IDNs is very Important for AP region as Next 500 million Internet users are from AP region itself.
      Ascii based Internet is barrier to those who are not familiar with ASCII based languages,in getting online.A multilingual internet is useful for all so that every one can have the benefits of this marvelous technology.
      We should also come together to solve issues related in to Universal Acceptance i.e. Speech to text search in local languages

  • Hiro Hotta

    • Whether/How Internet is defined as “Critical National Infrastructure” is different from country to country. In addition, the Internet is a cross-border infrastructure that is critical at least in a sense. So, I think it’s better to chage “Critical National Infrastructure” into “infrastructure based on the Internet”?

    • Vanuatu is ranked as one of the top (potential) sufferers in
      WorldRiskIndex. Countries/territories in Asia/Pacific region
      are among the tops as well.
      Disasters are unavoidable. Internet accessibility during after
      disasters is essential for the human lives. Preparation for
      Natural Disasters was a well-attended session.

      The above should be touched in the synthesis paper as it is
      one of the very important issues in AP region.

  • Hirotaka Nakajima

  • Hong Xue

  • Hong Xue

  • Hong Xue

  • Hriday Ch. Sarma

  • https://comment.rigf.asia/asia-pacific-regional-internet-governance-forum-2016-taipei-synthesis-document-draft-v2/

  • https://comment.rigf.asia/asia-pacific-regional-internet-governance-forum-2016-taipei-synthesis-document-draft-v2/

  • Hubert Chen

    • I believe that maintaining cultural diversity online is an important issue, but what I want to ask is that is there any active action we can take online to keep cultures from disappearing. The internet itself is a kind of powerful and new culture, which is actually putting minor culture on the edge of extiction. So I think there should be something we can do actively.

  • hvale vale

  • Ivana Saberon

    • We represent the voice of the youth. As we all know, the youth composes most of the internet users in this generation and that we are also the future of the internet, we hold a substantial responsibility in shaping the platform in the present for the betterment of tomorrow. And so we believe that a representative from the youth participants should be given the opportunity to partake a place in the workshop panels, and to voice out the youth perspectives regarding the themes and sub-themes that will be discussed in the forums.

  • Izumi Aizu

  • Jac

  • James Ah Wai

    • From our end in the Pacific, yes totally agreed in raising awareness so that everyone using internet will understand the threats, challenges and business opportunities that comes with the internet and at the same time aware of some proper and respectful way of using the internet platform within their respective roles.
      As for me being both involved in the Government and community so its best to use both connection to make the multitakesholder approach at national level a success. Can put together Government resources and community participation to build guidelines for a safer internet for everyone in the community.

    • In my view Governments are the victim of the social media contents on the internet. Have been working for the government of Samoa for 20 years and have seen abuses nowadays with the introduction of social media up their game to a another level. With freedom of expression and human rights people are not afraid to put anything on the internet despite some violent contents and misleading information as they can create their own fake news that suits their agenda. There is no control on verification of any information before uploading it.
      Hate speech, abusive language and misinformation is very disturbing when using these platforms. Some people tend to pour hate and fake news to stir up peace in Economies and will lead to disputes and lost of Trust to leadership. Some of the abuse have actually go beyond the limit, where it started with politics but now aims at families and children of the victims which is my BIG question is where does freedom of speech and human Rights DRAW THE LINE…Thus the RIGHTS support the Abuser who is free to make fake/hate news and disturb the peace within the community or the poor VICTIM..
      There were times our Govt was tempted to block social media especially Facebook but we have recognized its important role for genuine family connection around the Globe. We can’t underestimate how the social media platform have make life easier in bringing communication and accessibility to our home and roofs and many other benefits to our daily life but we have to understand that we need to use it with respect and its not something to bring shame and hurt to other human beings.
      We have moved to review our legislation’s and the government have reintroduced our criminal libel law to protect the victims from such disrespectful acts by some. The only challenge about the Act we can’t prosecute actions done from overseas but only contents that were uploaded locally.We have now in the pipeline of establishing a new Digital Transformation Authority that will oversees important changes in technology, as well as monitoring Government ICT services to meet the standard and security required. It will also through this Authority to make sure that Government critical information is protected and secure safely.

    • I was hoping if all countries that are now registered under the Global Internet Governance Forum can formalized a convention to safe guard the internet use. I know there is a Budapest convention for cyber crime by the Council of Europe (185). It now serves as the binding International instrument to fight against cyber crime.
      It provides guidelines for any country developing comprehensive national legislation against Cybercrime and as a framework for international cooperation between State Parties to this treaty.
      In saying this, we now have Non-European countries like USA, Japan and Australia as well as our neighbors Tonga who have signed and ratified the convention. I believe its a good platform for better collaboration and investigation if the perpetrator resides within these Countries or Regions.

  • James Boorman

    • Cybersecurity is focused on best efforts to make things more secure, without ever achieving 100% security. The goal of a truly secure Internet is an aspirational target. There needs to be increased effort on developing, implementing and revising minimum standards and good practices that address identified key risks for end users, organisations, critical infrastructure, nations and regions. This will require a multi stakeholder approach to identify and address key risks, it’s not just a problem for the network operators and IT professionals. Capacity building efforts need to consider: cybersecurity strategy and policy; cybersecurity culture and society; cybersecurity education, training and skills; legal and regulatory frameworks; and standards, organisations and technologies.

      National level leadership and dedicated, ongoing funding will be required for measurable and sustainable capacity building to deliver a more secure Internet, strengthening every link in the global cyber security chain.

  • Jan Jacob Jansalin

    • With the possibility of the splinternet there should be a call for island nations (governments) to invest in submarine cable infrastructure and not just leave it to the private sector. To a certain extent this improves the backhaul and the bandwidth capacity and significantly contributes to inclusion to less developeed island (provinces) but also enables redundancies to other adjacent nations making bilateral, multilateral nations better.

    • Could there be some sort of a neutral fact-checking website that is focused on APAC that is wikipedia-like that is led by APrIGF participants where multistakeholders can equally comment on it and yet their identities would be traceable for accountability. The results will show a spectrum of results from various perspectives not just a binary view on truth so people can be more informed. Also the results can be shareable to popular websites with understandable graphics for easy interpretation.

  • Jeff Garae

    • The current situation in the Pacific especially in Vanuatu is the lack of digital information contents, digital access, skills and information availability for various purposes that suits Vanuatu’s social and economical population. While there are now some implementation to spread access coverage, tailored information/contents for Vanuatu.
      In addition, creating user/business avenues and demand-driven access to motivate more use of Internet apart from just social media, email access and sms, etc. which could encourage local, regional and international access and connections are ideal to increase access and empowerment in the pacific.

    • I fully agree with Kenn Yee on the multi-stakeholder and collaborative approach outreach and capacity-building efforts for internet governance.
      The Pacific should get more involved in this approach as I think it will be the most suitable and working model to fit the geographical and diverse cultural existing in the pacific. And with the rapid pace and technological shift involving cloud technologies and services, the pacific needs to step up, evolve and utilise the Internet for their benefits and greater wider Asia Pacific region.

    • Online Privacy and Protection (or data protection) is a new concept for people in the pacific especially in Vanuatu. People in the rural areas of Vanuatu who daily use Social Media for communication generally do not know what is online privacy, data privacy/protection and even the concept of protecting personal data/information. The “value” of personal data online does not raise a concerning alarm to most end-users in the pacific. And with the unregulated nature of social media platforms, users do not take a step back to self-evaluate them on what/how their daily online presence are like.

    • There are several points/inputs with Cybersecurity and APrIGF:

      1. I think the opening sentence/statement is very good and states well what cybersecurity in the Asia Pacific region. Highlighting the words: “…growing concern, developing economies, security measures, online economies and emerging technologies…” really expresses the need to address cybersecurity gaps with multi-stakeholders security collaboration and partnership approaches with capacity building and promoting cybersecurity especially in the Pacific.

      2. This is a proposal to add to the APrIGFG 2019 sessions: more dialogue and discussion around addressing cybersecurity gaps with (1) more emphasis on security research inputs from industry research centers, academic research centers and governmental research centers, (2) innovation technologies within Cybersecurity domain, (3) law enforcement approaches, and (4) introduction of security techniques and methodologies which could help protect end-users help themselves over the internet, (5) Cyber Security standards such as ISO 27000 security Series standards, etc.

      Elaborating on how law enforcement play effective role in ensuring a safe Internet environment for users, existing collaborations with law enforcement research centers and agencies have indicated working relationships with security companies, academic institutions and financial institutions. Such working partnership are indicating positive way forward to addressing cybersecurity issues which the Asia Pacific region. Hence, encouraging the Pacific region to establishing partnership with law enforcement would be a bonus to their capacity building strategies.

      3. Encryption Standards and regulations. This input is more of a general input, where I am hoping to include discussion and inputs for the Asia Pacific region.

      4. I am supporting other speakers and people who commented on inviting more technical people to attend and create more session. I am not sure how much relevance this would be to the whole Internet governance forum (especially around management, logistics, etc.), but including technical work shop sessions such as Security tool training, and mini cyber security challenges especially for YIGF and pacific attendees would be a capacity building suggestion.

      5. Finally, my observation for the Pacific on a way forward with cyber security is to encourage effective partnership with security firms, institutions, academic institutions, law enforcement, ISPs, regulators. Finally learn from developed nations who are implementing effective cyber security strategies.

  • Jenna

    • This year, there is high and active youth participation in APrIGF, which reveals that the youth community in Asia-Pacific is growing robustly. Young people in this age are digital natives, therefore, it is essential for the community to include their voice in the policy-making process, and their opinions are actually beneficial for policy-making.

      WS 6 is basically a workshop initiated by youth, moderated by youth and for youth. Workshop like this not only helps open a door to Internet Governance for youth, but also helps get their voice heard. In order to help widening their horizon and exposure in Internet Governance, and to include more of their opinons, it is suggested to include at least one youth speaker on every workshop, so that the youth perspectives on every topics or issues can be considered.

    • Social media has an increasing influence on Internet users nowadays, where we highly rely on it to receive different kinds of information, from international news to life updates of your friends. However, there are no strict rules on these social media platform, which means the reliability of this information is questionable. Corporations try to establish the community committees to review reports received regarding fraud, fake news, bullying case, etc. However, due to various factors, including gaps in capacity and knowledge, culture differences, languages, personal judgement, value, and emotion. bias is generated and the core issues in these problems are usually not addressed. Therefore, it will be appreciated if these social media platforms can adopt emerging technologies such as AI as part of this report reviewing process, which can help eliminate bias generated by humans during the decision-making process. With an auditing process in the algorithm, it is believed that it can help improve the effectiveness in resolving issues related to social media and help eliminated bias generated by AI too.

    • Encryption is the foundation of human right online that every Internet users deserve to have. Without encryption, we have no privacy. We have the right to express freely both physical and on the Internet, which our opinions should not be intervened or censored by any authorities or being manipulated or interpreted in a way that is beyond our initial thoughts. Therefore, it is important to ensure encryption is universally applied on the Internet, in order to protect the universal value and standards towards human rights, where the Internet can always serve as a space for us to fight for our rights even if we are experiencing unfairness in certain situations in the reality.

    • Fake news is a big concern during COVID-19, it is understandable for some social media platform to establish some mechanism to filter out “inaccurate” information with some fact-checking system. With the “831 Incident in Hong Kong” example raised during the Townhall session on 30 September 2020, I believe our community should pay more attention on how such enterprises are reviewing their content and how they are influenced by the government bodies of different countries. As it is another form of violation of Human Rights to filter out factually accurate content with inaccurate conclusions. This is definitely a potential risk behind the entire fact-checking mechanism, as people may abuse the system by spreading false information online on purpose to limit the dissemination of true and accurate information in any channels with a similar mechanism for whatever reason.

  • Jeremy Malcolm

  • Jianne Soriano

  • Jim Prendergast

  • Jinel

  • John Jack

  • Jonathan Brewer

    • The basic method of Internet connectivity is now Wi-Fi.

      Some Asia-Pacific countries prohibit private companies from operating Wi-Fi hotspots, restricting this activity to incumbent telecommunications operators.

      Bridging the Digital Divide depends on free and open access for all people and companies to the radio spectrum that Wi-Fi relies on.

    • Frequency and spectrum are interchangeable terms. I suggest the sentence read either:

      “Open access to WiFi frequencies is increasingly important”

      or

      “Open access to WiFi spectrum is increasingly important”

    • Libraries in some Asia Pacific economies face regulatory hurdles when providing community Internet Access. These can include a:

      1.) a telecommunications license, or dispensation from a licensing regime.
      2.) a requirement to filter Internet content provided through the network
      3.) a requirement to provide interception capabilities for police / government
      agencies
      4.) a requirement to block Voice over IP technologies including Skype in economies where voice services can only be provided by licensed carriers

      An Asia-Pacific strategy for Community networks and public access to ICT should acknowledge these regulatory hurdles and promote their harmonisation or elimination as a step towards ensuring Universal Access.

    • Telecommunications licensing requirements are a major barrier to connecting the unconnected in developing Asia. Activities such as setting up a community Wi-Fi network are prohibited or made difficult in many economies by regulation, process, and corruption.

      True progress in this area cannot be made until telecommunications regulations in developing nations are relaxed to allow communities and their technical partners to innovate.

      This group would do well to produce a document summarising regulatory barriers to community networks on a country-by-country basis to highlight the problem and pursue it at a regional level.

    • We say “strategies must be developed” but in fact the ITU & World Bank InfoDev already have excellent strategies published in their ICT Regulation Toolkit. Should we instead seek to update or promote their work?

  • Jonathan Brewer

  • Josia Paska

    • In addition to providing access to the internet to more people, we also need to make sure that the internet provides a safe space for minority groups and vulnerable communities. There are at least two issues when it comes to the internet: the monolingualism of it and the lack of content that provides affirmations for minorities and marginalized communities. Therefore, I believe it is important to also think of how we can empower minorities and marginalized communities to populate the internet with native contents by and for the community and to build a safe space so they can not only use, but also thrive on the internet.

  • Joyce Chen

  • Joyce Chen

    • Some issues raised at Townhall:
      – Digital citizenship and importance of digital literacy
      – Accountability and transparency of (big) platforms, governments, and stakeholders
      – Role of governments and private sector (such as media) in the spread of misinformation and erosion of online trust
      – Collaboration and cooperation in cybersecurity “all hands on deck”

    • With new, emerging technologies, and the state of current geopolitics, the risk of Internet fragmentation is increasing. Fragmentation will disrupts people’s ability to access the Internet in a seamless way. It will also lead to a loss in innovation – one of the benefits of the global, interoperable Internet.

  • Juggapong

  • Julian

    • Human Rights online should just not limit what we can do in the internet, but it should not be ignored as well. I think the Human Rights online should be its own thing, it should be redefined, privacy offline is not necessarily what is online, free speech offline is not necessarily what it should be online. There is a difference and as such defined differently. It is an interesting topic, it should be highlighted but its definition should be clarified. Human Rights was not defined in a day. The existing one may not at all apply online.

    • With the internet being this ever-evolving entity, human rights on the internet should be ever-evolving as well. We should move forward and see the internet as it is and as it will be with rights ever changing and not as something set in stone.

  • KANUMURI S RAJU

  • Karma Tshering

    • When it comes to improving access to Internet, one of the biggest hurdles is digital divide. Even if the Internet is taken to their door step, digital illiterate (or even uneducated ones) gets left out from the inclusion. So the strategies must be also focused on helping/supporting those people who are first time ICT users. For example, community centers with Internet facilities can be setup within the community and the operators can support those people.

  • Karma Tshering

  • Kasek Galgal

  • Kelly Kim

  • Ken Katafono

  • Kenn Yee

  • Kenneth Pamintuan

    • I represent as one of the voices of the youth. Based on the Townhall Session held on July 18, 2019, me and my fellow youth participants from YIGF 2019 suggested implementing a “youth section” for the synthesis document from hereon. Knowing that the youth comprises of the majority of internet users online, especially on social media platforms, we would like to extend our help and participate more in these synthesis documents beyond what is expected of us. A large portion of the youth has broad access to the latest trends with the internet, so giving them the opportunity to voice out their opinions into a dedicated section where their thoughts will be focused upon. The youth playing a bigger role in both the multi-stakeholder model and the synthesis document is crucial when highlighting their important perspectives regarding the numerous issues with internet governance.

  • Kenta Mochizuki

    • We held a workshop on the protection of youth online. I know there were several workshops regarding the similar theme. Therefore, we believe that we should include several sentences on the protection of youth online specifically. In this regard, I would like to propose the following sentences.

      “While the freedom of expression based on the free flow of information shall be respected, protecting children from illegal and harmful online contents is one of the most important issues. Accordingly, it is vital for all multistakeholders including governments, private sectors, schools, and child welfare institutions to cooperate and collaborate each other in order to strike a balance between the freedom of expression and the protection of youth online. In addition, comprehensive approaches based on national and international laws as well as self-regulations are indispensable, taking into account cultural, historical, and social differences of countries and regions.”

    • We would like to propose the following paragraph to be provided after para. 16 “II. Security”.

      [Proposed Text]
      17. It is paramount to foster Internet freedom and ensure a safer Internet environment for all. Particular attention should be paid to address rapidly increasing challenges to protect youth online. The enhancement of ICT literacy of youth is important, but the protection of youth from illegal and harmful online contents is also indispensable not only for the Asia-Pacific region. All stakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations should cooperate and collaborate each other in adopting regulatory, self-regulatory, and other effective policies and frameworks to protect children and young people from abuse and exploitation through ICTs, while upholding the freedom of expression online guaranteed by the free flow of information.

    • Thank you so much, Paul and Wanawit. I would like to propose to replace with the following (but with brackets):

      Digital economy and trade are key enablers for the development of the world economy, yet they severely challenge traditional national [borders][jurisdictions]. Now that the digital economy has becomes the economy as such, it does not have any borders. The digital economy and trade cannot be successful without the free flow of information and appropriate domestic and global rules. On the other hand, there is a growing trend that some governments take protectionist approaches on trade by limiting the free flow of information and/or requiring data localization, and the trend hinders the further growth of the world economy. Therefore, constructing the further network of free trade agreements which requires member states to maintain the free flow of information and to ensure the prohibition of data localization as well as source code disclosure unless there is a legitimate public policy reason is recommended. In this regard, close collaboration and thorough discussion among governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations are indispensable.

    • Taking into account all the above proposals, I would like to propose the following text:

      28. V. Multistakeholder Approach
      The multi-stakeholder approach to Internet governance, which includes full and active participation by all stakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sector, civil society, the technical community, and international organizations, has been continuously and widely supported by all the stakeholders. This approach should be the basis of domestic and international policy making processes and initiatives which are inclusive, transparent and accountable to all the stakeholders in the world. All the stakeholders should be equal to get involved in the discussion of the Internet governance.

    • We would appreciate if you could add the following sentences in para.30, Security:

      “While recalling the freedom of expression online based on the free flow of information not only domestically but also internationally, the protection of youth from illegal and harmful online contents is one of the most important issues in the Internet governance. Hence, it is vital for all multistakeholders including, but not limited to governments, private sectors, schools, and child welfare institutions to cooperate and collaborate each other in order to strike a balance between the freedom of expression and the protection of youth online. In this regard, comprehensive approaches based on national and international laws as well as self-regulations by private sectors are indispensable, taking into account cultural, historical, and social differences of countries and regions.”

    • While I would like to echo what Ms. Hong Xue said, provisions on digital economy and trade are absolutely needed. In addition, there are many kinds of international agreements and policies, so we had better change the title otherwise this paragraph is bit vague and it is unclear what this paragraph wants to say.

      Therefore, I propose the following sentences:

      —–
      ¶32 (or appropriate para. number) Digital Economy and Trade

      Digital economy and trade are key enablers for the development of the world economy. Now that the digital economy becomes the economy as such, and does not have any borders. The digital economy and trade cannot be successful without the free flow of information and appropriate domestic and global rules. On the other hand, there is a growing trend that some governments take protectionist approaches on trade by limiting the free flow of information and/or requiring data localization, and the trend hinders the further growth of the world economy. Therefore, constructing the further network of free trade agreements which requires member states to maintain the free flow of information and to ensure the prohibition of data localization as well as source code disclosure unless there is a legitimate public policy reason is highly recommended. In this regard, thorough discussion among not only governments, but also other multistakeholders is encouraged by referring to Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement as one of the examples.

  • Khulan Batbayar

  • Koichiro Komiyama

  • KS Park

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining greater support in many countries. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? RTBF is a legal device supposed to protect privacy but it delists according to others concepts like public interest, and it is dangerous because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? More fundamentally, the mostly judge-made law delists according to concepts like public interest but it conflicts with public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? However, more fundamentally, the mostly judge-made law orders delisting according to concepts like public interest but it conflicts with free access to information and therefore public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries (such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines).”

    • “The so-called concept of Right to be Forgotten (RTBF) is gaining support in some jurisdictions. Should RTBF have extra-territorial application? Does it also apply to digitised newspaper archives? Where do the boundaries lie with freedom of the press, and the integrity of the historical record? More fundamentally, the judicial decisions under that concept conflict with public interest because it imposes a burden of proving public interest on people searching for public truthful statements or intermediaries facilitating that search such as libraries, educational institutions, archives, search engines.” – Winston, Yasuo (of IFLA); K.S., Kelly (Open Net Korea)

    • Sorry for multiple comments above, which kinda reflect collective stream of consciousness of the working group. Please use the last one signed with the names of all of us (clocked at 7:07am). Also, I think Arthit’s comment is consistent with and incorporatable into our proposed text.

    • “suggests competing public interest” sounds too weak in pointing out the problem. how about “Moreover, emerging jurisprudence is problematice because it imposes a burden. . . .”?

    • Right to be Forgotten is not very welcomed in Asia for a reason. There are many former colonies and dictatorships which until recently have not resolved the past injustices or oppressions that still stand as structural roadblocks in the paths to equality and democracy. In addressing those structures, we need to see the whole truth, not partial truth. Not truth just about public figures, not truth only about high level officials who collaborate with dictatorships or colonial administrations. Not just truth ordained by some offical history books issued by the governments. Not just truths approved through majoritarian decisionmaking as suitable for public discussion. Truth can only be approached only when having all voices heard including subjective ones.

      Proponents of Right to be Forgotten offer that it does not apply to public figure, but sometimes you need more information to decide whether someone is public figure or not. If the information is delisted, you really cannot make that determination properly.

      ​Moreover, people who in the past were not public personas, may become public figures in the future. Then their past may matter.

      People have collective right to know the wrongs of not just others, or even themselves. Collective right to observe, evaluate, and retain what they see in one another. So that they do stand as responsible colleagues to one another and keep themselves from repeating the wrongs. This is how the ethics of a society are done: by learning from the past. Publicness is exactly the space for collective learning.

      There are already many laws in Asian countries that interfere with such communal learning by suppressing even truthful information. For instance, in Korea, we have a truth defamation law where even information not proven to be false can subject to criminal prosecution merely for lowering another person’s reputation. We cannot have another principle such as RTBF that undermine our publicness.

      RTBF, currently framed, also constitutes administrative censorship. Non-judicial administrative body, namely data protection agencies, are empowered to order search engines to manipulate search results. Administrative censorship has been abused deeply and widely in Asia for blinding people from truths inconvenient to the authorities, as you could see in recent internet shutdowns in South Asia. The danger of administrative censorship is that lawful information can be taken down due to progovernment bias can dilute those decisions. Also, the subject of orders are likely to challenge the decision even if there is a judicial review process because the government can always retaliate even just for challenging it.

      Some people like to believe that data protection authorities are different from other organizations that have conducted censorship but I do not see it that way. I already see the evidence that in Peru, other Latin American countries where DPA is really playing the role of censorship. And in Korea, the dangers are also being played out. Internet censorship is not taking down unlawful content, but taking down unethical content and what is ethical is decided by these nine Korean males in their 50s and 60s and nobody can really get a consistent principle out of that. This only goes to show the dangers of DPA authorized to take down truthful public information for the pretext of RTBF.

    • Joint Statement of the Dynamic Coalition on Publicness Concerning the Right to Be Forgotten

      The public realm is losing ground. New regulation and jurisprudence are being conceived to address conflicts concerning the digital dimension of the public space and our ability, as Internet users, to reflect on ourselves. One of them is the so-called “right to be forgotten” (RTBF). The version originally formulated and popularized by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is now being adopted in other regions and with slightly different manifestations including both the right to delist and the right to delete content.
      The underlying motive behind the idea of the RTBF is people’s fear of being discriminated against for their past conduct. If this is the case, we need to recognize that blinding ourselves from one another’s wrongs (or supposed wrongs) is not an effective way of addressing and combating unreasonable discrimination. Under current rulings, the supposed wrongdoers can censor search results about themselves just because they think that certain past conduct is currently irrelevant to the moral evaluation of their character by others. Such self-centered censorship will prohibit people from confronting the real forces that are fanning such discrimination. Discrimination can only be addressed when the problems and its causes are known to society.

      Furthermore, blinding ourselves to information about others’ conduct is not a proportionate way of combating discrimination. Information that the supposed wrongdoers would like to bury deep within the Internet may be vital for the safety of the people who have pending encounters with the individual in question. Suppressing certain truthful information may be necessary to guard against a high likelihood of immediate discrimination, as in the case of former sex workers or sex abuse victims in certain cultures, but such likelihood must be measured against objective criteria not simply against subjective reputational wishes of the supposed wrongdoers. A viable legal provision against discrimination is possible and in many legislations already existent: either in ex ante forms, such as amnesties or expungement provisions, or in ex post forms protecting other personal rights, such as defamation. RTBF goes beyond that by restricting people trying to protect themselves from sharing vital information. A more effective and proportionate remedy against discrimination is allowing more information to be made available about people so that others’ perceptions of them can be properly contextualized.
      Simply put, information is not the reason for discrimination, but prejudice. Prejudice is not based on information, but on the moral decision to do harm by misusing information. We should combat discrimination, not information.

      RTBF depends on the temporal relevance of data, as in the phrase “no longer relevant;”thus, it is fundamentally incompatible with freedom of speech and freedom of information. Data does not become irrelevant with the passage of time because data, while becoming irrelevant in one respect or according to a particular perspective, may become or remain relevant from other angles or for other reasons – e.g., for historians, journalists, social scientists, policy-makers, or cultural studies. In fact, the value of data does not reside in the data in itself but in the eyes of the beholder. People may find relevance in old data that other people do not see. Freedom of speech and freedom of information recognizes that pluralistic ideal and grants people of all remote idiosyncrasies the right to impart or receive information as long as such action does not present a high risk of immediate and substantial harm. Freedom of speech does not judge on the relevance of speech.

      The popular defense of RTBF – that it does not apply to public figures or information of public significance – misses this point. Public interest is in constant flux. Suppression of seemingly insignificant data may suppress the possibility of public discourse because revelation of important public facts is often made possible by assembling a mosaic of facts that seem irrelevant to the majority of the people at given times. This is why RTBF is extremely problematic in many transitioning countries where full information is urgently needed to address impunities from colonial and dictatorial periods. Particularly in those countries, distinguishing between public and private figures is often impossible without the full availability of information.

      Finally, RTBF does not condemn the so-called “no longer relevant information” itself, but rather focuses on making that lawful information available online. In the future, this may mean that, those, especially the impoverished, who are limited to using censored search results will not have access to the information that the rich will be able to uncover by hiring people to conduct brute investigations. RTBF is therefore directly opposed to the Internet’s potential as the equalizer and liberator in terms of facilitating people’s access to information.

      We believe that the RTBF results from a misconception of the public realm in the digital age. There is a need for research to first understand the scope and dynamics of the public space after digitization. An increase in the amount and availability of information online affects our thinking about privacy, and it challenges our understanding of the public and the private. The RTBF as articulated by the ECJ, however, does not even attempt to do that, but rather tries to apply the norm regardless of whether it is public or private.

      For these reasons, we believe that RTBF jurisprudence should be withdrawn and should not be expanded in any way.

      Please sign here. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSftuxOmHMYdPVWQY3UOoZYnVd_eyWwUMi06nAh3LeVa7E-G4g/viewform?c=0&w=1

    • Building networks in geographically remote areas is one of the most important challenges that we need to meet. Internet has thrived because the networks and the content on them were built by private actors voluntarily who try to meet the demands of the users, and because of the shared control among different stakeholders, the multi-stakeholder model is important. To further increase access in geographically remote areas, we must incentivize private actors into building networks, and the private actors who are most efficient in monetizing access are global portals and therefore they are most incentivized in building networks. That is why you see Facebook developing solar panels, Google developing Loony Project, etc. These platforms’ entry into network building create various competition issues, i.e., verticial integration. Also, we can easily think of these content providers building networks or activating networks just for access to their contents, the case on point, Free Basics in India. Through the multi-stakeholder model, we should discuss how and whether to embrace these initiatives.

    • I think the problem with RTBF is that it does not make such distinction, i.e., for any personal data whether consisting of public content or private content, people accessing that data or search engine helping such people are imposed a burden to prove “public interest’ or drop from search. For instance, a stock broker puts out his financial information online to demonstrate his investment skills. Can he later suppress that information from search results “for being personal data” (maybe to avoid criticisms when his clients complain about bad performance of his portfolios)? If you say “no”, who is there to show public interest in keeping that data when the broker files a suppression request.

    • I think that RTBF has proximity to Internet shutdowns in para 19 because it disables critical functions of internet governance for reasons not related to access to illegal information. RTBF rule applies to information that is perfectly legitimate by itself and requires that information to be hidden from search. Internet shutdown does similar things to internet traffic.

  • Kuan-Ju Chou

  • Kyaw Zaw Lin

    • The progression of cyber security among the human interactions is an inevitable outcome but the barrier to which people being bullied with terms and data gathering is due to the system created by the people themselves. It’s a perfect world where every individual feeling safe online but the very platform is built by a human which means there’s always a back door flaw for intervention and manipulation. Perhaps the only alternative is a platform to be created, generated and regulated fully by a computer from scratch to development which in this sense requires years of human trust in technology to even start taking its shape in the first place.

  • Leotrina Macomber

  • Lim May-Ann

  • Lin Tsz Ching, Cadence

    • The recent trend is that censorship does not merely come in closing down of network or interrupted access to the Internet, but sometimes authoritative governments deliberately create traffic jam for websites that voices unfavourable opinions or opinions from the minority so that the website becomes unaccessible. Maybe this could also be acknowledged in the synthesis document and assistance and protection for those websites could be considered.

      Also, in my opinion any disruptions to the access to mobile and Internet services should be avoided at all cost, no matter whether standards have been established in national legislation or what because access to internet is a basic human right which should not be violated. Laws that are against this human right are not justified, and provides an excuses for authoritative regimes in censorship.

  • Lokesh

  • Maheeshwara Kirindigoda

  • Maheeshwara Kirindigoda

  • Mandy Chan

    • Apart from including the youth, I think it is also important for us to include the elderly in the discussion. With the advancement and spread of smart gadgets, more and more middle-aged people and elderly are now using these smartphones for online activities and to connect with their family and friends. However, for quite a number of them are not as alert as young people, who are digital natives, when it comes to issues like cybersecurity and privacy protection. Some of them have only little understandings on these dangers, which means that they are probably more prone to cyber crimes, privacy breach and so on. It is essential to include them in the discussion of internet governance so that we can understand better about their difficulties and better address them.

  • Maria Umar

    • Internet Access has hugely changed my personal life and helped me change that of other women around me. The Women’s Digital League was formed when I was fired from my teaching job because the private school I was working at would not give me maternity leave. Sitting at home with a simple dial up connection I found remote work. Earning my first $2.5 writing an article for someone in the US gave me much-needed confidence in my abilities. It was a stepping stone to becoming financially empowered and independent; being recognized as the top most impactful entrepreneur in Pakistan; and in showing women they didn’t have to accept status quo. With greater financial empowerment I ahve seen young women not settle for the first proposal that came for them as they were no longer a burden on their household; send siblings to school/college; have greater say in decisions at home; be more respected and therefore have a higher self-esteem.

  • Mariko Kobayashi

  • Marlon

    • One of the key points highlighted during the workshop is the need for education and awareness.

      1. Technical solutions and competencies are the technical deterrence to secure systems, to try and reduce or prevent technical vulnerabilities.

      2. Legislation and laws are an approach to try and deter a behavioral motive but not necessarily prevent deter technical attacks. The bad guys do not care about laws.

      3. Education and awareness is a user preventive measure from exposure to security vulnerability due to illiteracy and ignorance.

      Therefore Education and awareness is an equally important measure to cyber security

  • Mary Rose Ofianga

    • [WS17. The Future of Digital Identity and Human Rights] Many of the governments are into digital identities. In the case of the Philippines, a National ID the law was just recently signed by the president. In a way, this is beneficial to the citizens in improving ease of transactions with among government agencies. But the question is, how resilient is our government in protecting our date. A data breach already happened in the Philippines which put 70M Filipinos’ personal data at risk. In the case of the National ID Law, we have to make sure that the Data Privacy Act will be reinforced to the government as the data controller and processor. Aside from that, a protocol has to be established to make sure that these data wont be compromised for whatever misuse.

    • [WS23. Big tech everywhere: Is this the future of the Internet?  ] During the panel discussion there was a concern about Big Fall of Big Tech. It becomes a trend that big tech companies are acquiring small tech companies to expand their products and services, leaving people with still limited options on online products and services. However, we may not be able to stop these big companies from doing that, that is our business, certainly. But what we can do is start and keep supporting tech startups in out locality, help build the startup ecosystem, and create more options, even gradually. Let’s promote permissionless innovation, support our local tech startups, and raise awareness about internet governance to this community.

  • Maureen H

  • Maureen Hilyard

  • Mili

  • Ming Yip

    • A solid and detailed guideline for the enforcement body is essential. We cannot guarantee that the enforcement body would not perform any acts that go beyond the line and infringes ones’ privacy, even when its intention is to promote national security. In that connection, there must also be ways to stop those enforcement bodies from continuously infringing individual privacy.

      In relation to the balance, it is also suggested that the guidelines should incline more to the protection of individual privacy, which is believed fundamental in human rights.

    • Aside from internet governance, internet itself is not generally known by the public in some pacific islands. As reflected by the local youth in yIGF, many of them said that the fact that they do not understand what internet is has hindered the progress of internet access.

      In this connection, I think different stakeholders should also educate more on the basic concepts of internet in some pacific islands, which is also an important capacity building section. So with more knowledge on internet, internet access may be promoted, and so as internet governance eventually.

  • Ming Yip

    • A more solid and detailed guideline is essential for enforcement bodies. We cannot guarantee that the enforcement bodies would not go beyond the line that excessively infringes ones’ privacy. In that connection, there have to be ways or directives to prevent those enforcement bodies from continuously infringing ones’ individual privacy, even when its intention is to protect national security.

      In relation to the balance, it is suggested that the guideline should incline more on the side of individual privacy, as this is fundamental in human rights.

  • Mohit Saraswat

    • Building Trust on the Internet ( Surveillance state in AP)- In my view, it is very important that all the stakeholder have optimum trust in the platform. To achieve the same all the stakeholders have to shoulder responsibilities.

      End user are to be made aware of their privacy needs.
      Content provider and Collaboration tools ( Read Twitter, Facebook) that form important part of the ecosystem have to derive and develop plans to incorporate trust; Segregating private and public space for the end user.
      Government and regulator have to be made responsible for respecting and building trust.

    • In my opinion, a lot of machines would constitute to a bigger portion of the next billion that would be joining the internet. Machine to Machine communication would be an integral part of internet expansion. Its important that security by design is considered in M2M communication.

    • While these treaties and agreement would be certainly helpful in ensuring the cross border data flow, which was one of the building block of the internet, it would be beneficial to have it done providing a level playing field to all the parties involved. Mechanism should be inbuilt in these treaties ensuring that the further development of digital economy for the developing countries are not compromised in any ways. This also include offsetting measures that data localization brings to the parties advantage.

  • Mokabber

    • hello, I am mokabberi from Iran, advisor of cyber policy research institute.

      My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • hello, I am mokabberi from Iran, advisor of cyber policy research institute.

      My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • My comments:
      how can we promote inclusive norm making process reqarding these below consideration:
      1. shaping Fair, democratic, global and ethical internet governance mechanism is key precondition for cyber security norm making process can overcome mistrusts.
      2. we should also work on norms of responsible behavior of tech company
      3. ITU can play role in cyber security standardization to secure ICTs products supply chain security
      4.we should also consider smart lethal weapons and fake attributions
      l thinks this process will lead to more militarization of cyberspace and cyber weapean race and establishing AIEA for cyberspace and let some country for unilateral coercive measure in cyberspace like digital countermeasure
      This process like applying IHLs in digital realm and turn it into conflict zone is against the vision of peaceful and development-oriented internet for human goods

    • One suggestion:
      A percent of (for example about 5 percent) of taxes of global tech companies and digital platforms that payed to governments can allocated for IGF budget for the implementation of IGF strategic plan and research and development Fund in the field of internet governance in national and international level . By this initiative funding problems of NRIS will be solved.

    • hello,
      this suggestion can be enclouded in aprigf massage :
      One suggestion for increase of financial Strengths of IGF
      A percent of (for example about 5 percent) of taxes of global tech companies and digital platforms that paid to governments can allocated by them for IGF budget for the implementation of IGF strategic plan and research and development Fund in the field of internet governance in national and international level . By this initiative funding problems of NRIS will be solved.

    • hello, from mokabberi from iran.
      my comments
      we have seen some organized disinformation and fake news in social media with geopolitical purpose ,for example we clearly see that some networks of fake accounts and bots are producing fake news against shia muslims in the name of sounni muslims and at the same time, they are spreading disinformation and hate speech against sunni muslims in the name of shia muslims. We all know who benefits from conflict between muslims and Who benefits from conflict between russia and europe.
      what should be done with this organized disinfo at global level that want to make hostilities among nations and religious groups in the world to gain iligimate economical and political interest?
      Regulation? Digital ethics? Awareness and digital litracy?
      Declaration by stakeholders?

  • Ms Nasuven Enares c/- Pauline Molissa USP Port Vila Vanuatu

  • N.Pravina

  • Nabillah Hijazu

    • What are the roles of all stakeholders in access provision and inclusion, and the provision of education and training for information literacy and digital literacy, including the responsible exercise of these skills with respect for other people? 3 recommendations that should be implemented by Internews to help the community especially.
      First of all is to go back to basics. We might have the understanding that we are going to go into communities with the power and privilege we have compared to the community that we are going to serve. However, we should view anything that we are going to do with the community as a learning process for both parties. Listen first to their information and the knowledge they know so far. Assessment within the community to adapt on what they want and what they need. Only then education and awareness take place to disseminate the knowledge.

      Secondly, we should hold on to the principle of do no harm in a more practical way. When talking about information it can be accessed online and offline. For the online platform, the way we engage with the community should be based on their understanding and we do not want to open can of worms where we educate them on how to get the information but not how to control themselves to impart the knowledge properly. Either urban or rural communities, they are all prone to the danger of the internet and false news. This is where we should be careful on what we go through with them as at the end we could not just leave them without properly briefing them on the online danger too.

      Thirdly, no one is left behind. We tend to assume that rural communities have a lack of access for information. However, there are reports of those educated and also professionals that fell into scams and did not know properly on how to differentiate the quality and originality of the information. This could cause more harm in the society and community. The outreach of the programme should comprise the rural, urban poor and community organizers that will help the community in exercising their knowledge and rights and in a way enhance their literacy.

  • Nadira Alaraj

    • UA is a foundational requirement for multilingual Internet, in which users around the world can navigate via DNS entirely in local languages. UA needs coordination efforts by the private sector, technical & academic communities, civil society, and governments to ensures that all domain names and email address internationalization (EAI) can be used by all Internet-enabled applications, devices, and systems.
      There is an importance need to make everyone from the stakeholders aware of the UA and its tight connection with the IDNs and what advantages it can provides to the general public. Awareness is not enough but creating the drive or motives to demand all stakeholders of serious efforts towards the inclusiveness of the IDNs and EAI.
      There are few research and development experiments in APAC region on IDNs and EAI, but more resources is needed to work on standardization.
      Creating a consistent environment of enabling the access of local content with local domain name and send and receive emails using the local email address.

    • [ Internet Governance & Multi-Stakeholder Participation ]

      No one denies the importance to make the voice of underrepresented communities be heard at APrIGF or any other IGFs. But at the end of the day, it will discussions that “could” be heard by the decision making bodies but there might not be any follow up.
      What would be a good approach is to develop the connection between APrIGF Community (like MSG, or other subject matter experts to join ITU Government delegates for consultancy during the development of ITU resolutions.

    • [WS6. Analyzing Perspectives on Youth Participation in the Multi-stakeholder Landscape: A Contextual Follow-Through Session on Motivations to Sustainability Efforts]

      APrIGF has to be proud of having youth organizing a session and sharing experiences. Attended the meeting thinking that there will be discussions on how the Youth fit into the overall scene in the IGFs, but the focus of the workshop was on the different youth initiatives. What was shared of the youth engagement in the Philippines would give an example of how youth are contributors to policy development in their own country.

    • Norms should be developed from bottom-up in multistakeholder model.

      Great research, this bottom-up of putting Norms when talking about children stopped me.
      The digital norms are taking the net citizen to a completely different path of norms that was practiced before the Internet. Hence, the MS model that you are mentioning that need to be developed on an equal footing. To bring the experience and wisdom of the past with the practices of today.

    • So far cybersecurity laws have failed to protect the freedom of speech.
      The problem that most states are putting regulations without wider public consultation. It depends on parliament members to comment or endorse new laws.
      Would be possible to do some changes in the jurisdiction model to bring balanced views?

    • [WS48. A roadmap for studying ICT laws and building a database for Asia]
      I didn’t attend this session, however, the organizer of this workshop could benefit of the pilot project that was done by iGmena to: Internet Legislation Atlas
      “The ILA aims to pinpoint opportunities for improvements and contribute to raising the awareness of concerned stakeholders, and empowering civil society to participate in the Internet policy dialogue in the regional and global level and influence the decision-making process in the local level. This is done through:

      Mapping the legal landscape in each country as it relates to the Internet and civil society.
      Outlining gaps and ambiguities among existing laws and regulations in relation to international human rights standards.
      Highlighting opportunities for advocacy regarding Internet-related law and policy in each country drawing on international human rights standards and best practices.
      Connecting civil society to resources that will help them navigate the legal environment.”

    • [WS12. Coping with misinformation in an era of information deluge: Who is Responsible?]

      Who is responsible: basically, every single person of us who share information either verbally, by email or through social media networks without authenticating it.
      The challenge that we all face that the misinformation are getting smarter and hard to even an intelligent person to identify it. For example, the AI deep fake application which is available to anyone easy to use. This application can give anyone the tool to take a photo and use audio to make a video. This application has a double edge sword as artist and ad producer could be creative to do very creative videos but on the other hand, those who produce disinformation could use it as well to mislead the general public.

      As disinformation are using AI, Many issues must be considered.
      -Increase evidence-based policy research as there is a lack of evidence on the impact or influence of the use of technology or AI for disinformation campaigns.
      -Clickbait and targeted advertising business models that are based on the promotion of sensationalist news as a means of competing in the market for individuals’ attention. Big companies employ algorithms that exploit user data. Hence, there is a need to have serious discussions on how to protect users data.
      Hence Data protection
      If the illegal collection and access to users’ data is stopped, micro-targeted disinformation campaigns would lose much of their effectiveness and threat potential. As is already clear, weak data protection rules and enforcement not only impact user privacy and choice, but also lead to constant monitoring, profiling, and “nudging” towards political and economic decisions.

    • [WS35. Language Diversity in Asia-Pacific: Challenges towards Digital Dividends]
      According to UNESCO, there are more than 6000 languages worldwide.
      To have a practical approach to digital language diversity and local content is to adopt policies that encourage local content producers. Countries in APAC region adopted the official languages, hence all content hast to depend on those languages and reduce the dependency on content produced from the developed countries.
      This approach might put some communities into a disadvantage. But empowering minorities to produce their content and in their own languages will help to preserve it.

      On another aspect, algorithm bias in search engines does create a divide based on the language the users are searching with.

    • The challenging of implementing good eGovernment services in developing economies is the infrastructure and reaching to the last mile.
      Hence along with the development of the portal, the Government has to develop the right strategies to the grantee that their e-services do reach out to every single citizen. It might be done by allocating certain stations in the remote areas.

  • Natthanat Julotok (@PKZAIT)

  • Naveed Haq

    • Compromised IoT devices, such as webcams or even lightbulbs, can be used to form “botnets”, networks of Internet-connected externally controlled devices. These devices, referred to in this context as “bots”, are often infected with malicious software and used for disruptive or criminal purposes. Understanding the growing impact that IoT security has on the Internet and its users is critical for safeguarding the future of the Internet. IoT manufacturers, IoT service providers, users, standards developing organizations (SDOs), policymakers, and regulators will all need to take action to protect against threats to Internet infrastructure.

    • One of the key obstacles to improving internet penetration in rural and remote areas is last mile connectivity. The lack of commercial viability, as well as huge network roll-out costs worry operators who are reluctant to make the necessary investments. Community Networks are considered as an excellent supplement solution to address last mile connectivity. They do require a strong support from policy makers and some of the steps that could be taken in this regards are:
      1. Streamline or eliminate related regulatory requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
      2. Expand universal service and other public funding opportunities, and publicize / include community networks as eligible for funding through universal service fund.
      3. Introduce approaches to provide spectrum access and innovative licensing for community network operators.
      4. Encourage community initiatives to build networks aiming to reduce digital divide.

      It is also important to consider that not one solution can work / can apply everywhere and the most critical aspect behind success of a community network is ‘sustainability’ that usually comes with a supporting business model.

    • One of the issues discussed during the week was routing security. Every year, thousands of routing incidents occur, each with the potential to harm user trust and handicap the Internet’s potential.

      Spoofed Internet traffic is a persistent threat, and often the root cause of reflection Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.All stakeholders including policymakers, must take steps to strengthen the security of the global routing system.

      Best practices, like the Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security, provide a clear path for network operators to take towards addressing these routing threats.

      While we action on cybersecurity threats on the Internet application layer, we cannot fail to Protect the Core (technical layer)

    • [WS55.Community Networks] One of the key obstacles to improving internet penetration in rural and remote areas is last mile connectivity. The lack of commercial viability, as well as huge network roll-out costs worry operators who are reluctant to make the necessary investments

      Policy makers and Regulators can facilitate initiatives like Community Networks to bridge last mile connectivity gaps by:

      – Streamlining or eliminating regulatory requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
      – Provide tax, customs, regulatory, and licensing fee exemptions.
      – Provide clear, public guidance on the specific policies and regulatory requirements (and exemptions) for community networks.
      – Expand universal service and other public funding opportunities to community networks.
      – Introduce innovative approaches for licensing and spectrum access

    • The United Nations estimates that one in six people live with disability – that is a total of 650 million women, men and children in the Asia-Pacific region.

      People with Disability (PWDs) face various challenges in accessing the Internet based on their impairment. For example, persons with visual impairments can face compatibility challenges when screen reader software is used to access visual displays that are not labelled or hyperlinks that do not make sense when read out of context.

      If designers of digital technologies and content keep accessibility at the heart of design activities, people with disability can be empowered to do more themselves, without having to rely on others. In contrast, if designers miss out on accessibility, they continue to develop products and content that increases barriers for people with disability when using digital technologies and content.

      Although, there are known and easy to implement guidelines to address the barriers, many developers of web content, mobile applications and related digital technologies usually do not consider people with disability while designing or updating their products. With such a large number of the population with disabilities, businesses are potentially losing out if accessibility issues are not considered, and the universal design concept is not understood and adopted. Universal design means that businesses improving consumer products such as hardware, software, websites and applications to make them usable for a broader section of the community including people with disability, in turn, gain reach to a much larger consumer base in more situations.

      It is very important to recognize PWDs as one of the stakeholders in the development of policies and technologies, and to educate the community (especially content developers) about the importance of equal access for PWDs. Promoting digital accessibility contributes to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and ensure that the rights of PWDs are met.

    • Diminishing trust is a challenge for the Internet – all of the creativity and innovation we see on the Internet is based on users trust. Internet of Things (IoTs) will play a crucial role in maintaining this trust.

      Poorly secured IoT devices and services can serve as entry points for cyber attacks, compromising sensitive data and threatening the safety of individual users. Understanding the growing impact that IoT security has on the Internet and its users is critical for safeguarding the future of the Internet.

      Many organizations are working hard on IoT security and privacy issues, but there is a need for all stakeholders, including policymakers, manufacturers, and consumers, to make good choices about the future of IoT and security.

  • nd

  • nd

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  • Nestor Boniche Gonzalez

  • NetMission Ambassadors

  • NetMission on YIGF

    • Redefined Youth Participation – Refine and rediscover  a new model to youth participation beyond current practices for better integration rIGF and related youth IGF. Models like small-scale group discussion are effective in closing the gap between youth delegates and rIGF delegates. At the same time, it is important to recognize the language barriers and to encourage the production of related conference material in local languages (if possible).

  • Nigel Hickson

  • Nusrat Mehajabin

  • Nuwan Waidyanatha

    • Given the volume of IOT devices, it is difficult for regulators to validate the security of each device. Would be similar to testing every brand and variation of items in a grocery market shelves. Self regulation by identifying who does comply with IOT security standards and other guidelines is necessary. While ISOC is taking an initiative to provide such checklists; possibly the National CERTs could be the ones responsible for providing tools and guidelines for the consumers.

    • Community Networks are proven and are becoming a trend. Perhaps some discussion is necessary. While community networks were a session in 2018 APrIGF it was also a session in 2017; specifically supporting ICT resilience and emergency communication. Community networks were also identified as means for solutions for landlocked and small developing islands. The backhaul for such networks would come from big players like Facebook, Google.

  • Pablo Hinnojosa

    • ADD question:
      How the Internet (the Internet sector, but more importantly, the Internet community) can have the most positive impact in the Environment?

    • Some issues to help frame global IGF Environmental Theme:
      a) incentives for sharing data by public and private sectors as digital public goods
      b) environmental data governance
      c) collaborative environmental analytics (citizen science and open datasets)
      d) AI-algorithm transparency for data integration and analytics for digital public goods
      e) dealing with misinformation and fake news about the environment
      f) e-waste and product lifecycle
      g) early warning systems, disaster recovery and emergency response, specially in the Pacific

    • At the workshop today, WS89 “Whois” collected, disclosed and protected: How we care about protecting data privacy?”, there are elements about Whois that had to do with cybersecurity, specially the use of Whois for traceability and attribution. However, not only Law Enforcement Agencies use the Whois for this purpose. There are other entities, such as CERTs, that use Whois to monitor behavior regularly but, importantly, for incident response purposes. It is important that CERTs have access to Whois, as public accessibility might be restricted due to privacy considerations.

    • During workshop WS89 “Whois” collected, disclosed and protected: How we care about protecting data privacy?” we discussed how privacy considerations have been strengthened in light of the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), an European set of privacy rules that have impacted the way Whois publishes personal information of Domain Name holders. These rules are not limited to Europe but have extraterritorial enforceability, adding new considerations to ICANN contracted parties, such as Registries and Registrars, that need to comply with both, the GDPR and their contractual agreements with ICANN. This has trumped community-led policy development processes at ICANN, requiring an expedite process for Registrar and Registrars to agree on new policies for their Whois services to comply with GDPR. It is important to improve monitoring capability of future legislation that may have impact on services such as Whois; but also prevent that multistakeholder processes be overturned by regulatory processes.

    • Perhaps could be good, in an introductory paragraph, a mention to the presentation by Vint and Chengetai about the recent launch, by the UN Secretary General, of the High Level Panel on Digital Cooperation. The APrIGF community may acknowledge the Panel and appreciate the efforts by Chengetai and Vint to reach out to this community and the mapping of different issues. Perhaps we can also set some expectations about the level of openness, inclusiveness and transparency in which the panel will be working; and also perhaps recommend that the voice of the HLP is very much welcomed, but not necessarily representative of the multistakeholder community.

    • At the “Know Your Net – Enabling A-Z competences with Net Tech in the Pacific” workshop there was an excellent discussion about three critical challenges that the Internet is facing in terms of its future stability and security. These are: IPv6, DNSSEC and routing security. The future of the Internet highly depends on the successful implementation of policies and best practices and the increased implementation of these three critical measures.

    • Actually, on second thoughts, this mention to the HLP can more appropriately be placed in the section on Multistakeholder Participation in Internet Governance (???).

    • Agree, John Jack! Perhaps it deserves a mention in the report that there has been a most positive development, in the recent 2-3 years, as new CERTs are being established in the Pacific. Tonga, PNG and Vanuatu are three great examples on inclusive CERT developments that bring great cybersecurity benefits to the community.

    • Paragraph #2 is quite negative to the Internet. While consideration of risks and threats is important, it is best to address the Internet evolution in a positive light and find opportunities in every threat. Possible rephrase:

      One of the main themes discussed at the APrIGF in Vladivostok, was peaceful collaboration towards a safer Internet. This included questions such as (paragraphs 2 and 3):

      ====
      How can the Internet community participate more actively in the international cybersecurity discussions and encourage more co- operative measures? What shall the digital ethics be for businesses? How shall we take into account the concept of public goods and the commons vs. data ownership and privatization of knowledge? How can we keep the positive elements of “localized” Internet while being aware of its downsides? To enhance trust and security, how can we enhance the capacity building effort and how do we bridge the gap between technical and non-technical understanding of securing the Internet?

      While there are growing concerns on issues such as misinformation, fake news, hate speech and harassment, online violence and terrorism, organized cybercrimes, market concentration in cloud services, data breaches resulting in a decrease of trust as well as a wave of state regulations to mitigate the cybersecurity risks. To maintain cyber hygiene, what kind of policies and governance model shall be adopted to tackle these issues and achieve a safer Internet? What should be the key considerations for states when creating these regulations? How shall we maintain legal interoperability of laws and extraterritorial data protection on the Internet? Should the Internet be regulated by the states solely and what is the impact of these existing regulations on the Internet? How should the balance be drawn between state interference on Internet infrastructure and a free and open Internet?

      =====

    • This is an improved version which I support.

    • Perhaps move purpose of synthesis document BEFORE the Introduction?

    • Not sure the right term is “transnational”. Question can be rephrased as: Does this needs to be regulated by International Law?

    • A closing paragraph is needed, also to reflect how the Synthesis Document can help to connect APrIGF with the global IGF, also to include statistics of how many people registered and participated at the APrIGF and general statements about the success of the event and the vibrancy of the community.

  • Paul Wilson

  • Peerarust Siriamphan

    • Even though it’s a very good idea to help the people with lack of English skill to be able to access to internet easily but from my experience now people with lack of English skill still have the ability to access to the internet. For example if they want to search for the information there is a google app on the mobile phone. Both iOS and Android system have local language instruction. They don’t really remember what URL the website have all there care about is the tittle and short description on Google.
      For the EAI, for Thailand. I have ask some of my friend and all of them never know about IDN and EAI and they are all don’t interested in having local language email or domain. If I have any chance to interview people from more rural area I will updated here.

  • Prasanth Sugathan

    • Online Harassment

      Efforts are required involving all stakeholders to make the Internet a safe space for all, including the voices of the minorities. Solutions to online harassment can take many forms, such as victims speaking out about their abuse, better community standards by social media companies, digital security precautions, self-help strategies, stricter laws, and better efforts by law enforcement agencies.

    • Algorithmic Transparency

      Algorithms form a basic part of data analysis and artificial intelligence. They are made by various entities in order to analyse data and make use of data for purposes such as profiling, showing targeted advertisements, showing relevant search results, as well as performing automated tasks such as those performed by self-driving cars.
      Disclosure of algorithms can facilitate governments, researchers and the general public in understanding what kinds of data is used and how that data is used, leading to an increase in privacy awareness through openness and transparency.

  • Praveen

    • Internet is not something which is created by single entity, it’s a wish, work and infrastructural development of every stakeholder, but unfortunately most of the Internet infrastructure is owned by private corporations rather than the civil society. Majority of Internet infrastructure is copyrighted. So it’s the responsibility of governing bodies to make the basic infrastructure which builds the Internet under the Open access and accessible to the public.

  • Prof. Rakesh Mehrotra

  • Rajat

  • Raman Jit Singh Chima

  • Renata Aquino Ribeiro

  • Reysa

  • Rilla Gusela Sumisra

    • – Broaden the ethics education (more to algorithm ethic) to engineer/ IT students to government because the universities or schools are officially recognized or by ministry of education in their own countries. Recommendation: The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (“the Code”) expresses the conscience of the profession.
      – Broaden/ categorize ethical issues , because this is not only computing that included. For example such as Product design, coding/programing, operational handling content because the data is from all background

    • WS50:
      – There are some countries which started to give regulation about crypto assets and some are not. We may need structured model for govern crypto assets because if we don’t have the model it will be difficult to define. But it’s also already provided by internet draft IETF before.

      – For crypto assets governance, The Important point is the communication among business and engineers, It is not easy to solve but it’s important to start communicate each other.

      – If there will be new crypto currency platform released, we should concern about the users and security, for example Libra from Facebook including WhatsApp, Instagram, and Messenger, targeted to be able to transact with Libra starting in early 2020. However, it is not yet clear whether the availability is simultaneous worldwide or gradually in several countries first. But the main point is where almost all Facebook and those social media users is in the youth categories, so It’s important for giving awareness and education and comprehensive information about cryptocurrency in our communities

    • WS30
      – There are a lot of methods of AI, IoT and IT Technologies. The importance is what is the real definition of ethics, and what are ethics for coders and we have to concern that if ethic definition always changing
      – Innovation is important, as well as innovation of permission while maintaining algorithm accountability
      – Building communities that can help the programmer/ future developers and engineers after graduation maintain of algorithm ethics of the behind computing machine

    • WS37. Is e-Government an effective mechanism for developing economies

      – People need simple, fluent, integrates e-government services or we could state that importance of basic info needs first to support life capabilities. The thing to need attention while constructing E-government is there must be right people or who understand the functions of social institutions and society. Besides, we have to see what must be caught such as emerging trends and issues. For example, in the Pacific, the most important thing is to have a connection. Even though there are connections but still limited and few. and it should be noted that there are still few people working on the ICT. E-government is capable of work with ICT companies in their respective regions to achieve effective e-governance and digital economic growth. If it has already been implemented, the most important thing is to increase securities in the system / app in e-government because using a real name system, we can conclude ideally is the resilience of and sustainable system.
      – Fiji 5 Years transformation online. Digital transformation program to bring government services online, such as online record of birth, death and marriage, business and company registration, etc.
      – In Indonesia, for example of government applications in education sector are government library app which we could rent e-book from this app, public school enrollment can be done online for junior and senior high school level. In health sector, there is Online Self registration in the public hospitals to make an appointment with doctor, etc.
      – For those who have just started an e-government website, for example, several countries in the Pacific island can be made with recommendations from several websites from other countries and analyze what features which must to have, good to have or not particularly, Examples for must to have are main news page, weather forecast, focus on tourism (by occupation) simplify the website topics, sign up and log in, Message us, Contact, FAQ, Health topics, search engine. For good to have are Education sites, Every Drop Counts, Text to speech for disability people, Social Media, E-services of government information.

    • • WS9. Parallel Workshop: Build Concept on AI and Society for good Global

      The concept from academic aspect is the curriculum that could influence learning process of building concept on AI, maybe only some countries in Asia Pacific have implemented it, but not at all and now starting to be implemented.

      The awareness methods could be formal and informal training. For examples of formal training are such as open online class and supplement lesson. For informal training from tutorials or videos on internet that we can access by our self and make group of club to give this knowledge.
      AI is not the new things for programmer, therefore to deepen practices on developing AI products, they should more explore and take the initiatives to be professionals and not only depend to the lessons in the universities. the result that can be achieved for example such as competition that could maximize their knowledge which they already receive at class and school, and the integral projects which can give the best solutions towards Sustainable Development Goals and some kind of issues such as poverty and disaster recovery and others.
      As we know AI helps economic and industry sectors more convenience in advertising and analyzing the data. It could be said that machine learning and open data will help global system development. This world is AI lace but not all countries pay attention about inclusion problem, we need to focus on AI economies and we have to improve security and privacy protection.

    • WS22. IoT Security – A Differentiator for Consumers

      – Based on some reports and news, there are some IoT Technologies which are not implement strong security. that are compromised by hackers even as homes and businesses continue to add these and other connected devices to their networks and it was realized that most challenges were of privacy/confidentiality and data integrity. Based on those issues, the companies should improve from layer security, framework and platform devices.
      – There is the fact that innovation of IoT products could help people with disability but we also have to concern about the security and who will be responsible for facilitate this concern
      – The raising awareness about security in IoT. At least consumers understanding about what data will they give, term and agreements with the IoT services and strengthen transparency accountability of IoT manufacturers about information of their IoT Products and integrity .
      – There is no real regulation about differentiator for customer on IoT, bringing companies to participate/ involve or maybe it would be better if they had a common framework. The movement that we can do is work together

  • Rohana Palliyaguru (Sri Lanka)

  • Rom Kant Pandey

  • Sachini Perera

  • Salanieta Tamanikaiwaimaro

    • In addition in 2018, the High Level Political Forum at the UN HQ in New York will be an opportunity for the National Regional IGF Initiatives (NRIs) to showcase how this is achieved on a practical level around the world.

    • On the issue of Access. there are a host of organizations who are involved across the multistakeholder environment who deal with “Access”. At the WSIS 2017, Chinese Multinational Corporations such as Huawei presented on how they intend to connect the next billion. You have IGOs that have diverse strategies on bridging the digital divide but what we want to do is (in IGF fashion) allow for the opportunity to synergize efforts to bring development whether at policy level, infrastructure level, technical standards, innovation at the edge etc. Asia Pacific is on the cutting edge of development with crypto banks in Malaysia, and Indonesia happens to be chair of the UN 2nd Committee which looks after the Addis Ababa Agenda which was passed by the UNGA. However with Accessibility there are issues of inclusion and threats that come with growing Access which require mitigation.

    • China has recently introduced law banning VPNs which pose as a threat to freedom of expression or freedom from surveillance by the State. Other countries have for years attempted to stifle accessibility by internet shutdowns and we have seen this in the deliberate throttling of the internet in Iran, internet shutdowns in countries like Pakistan, attempted banning of You Tube and Facebook etc in other countries.

    • Countries are not obliged to respect international law only those which they have ratified. We cannot impose they respect the conventions. But what needs to happen is that the NRIs are afforded a unique opportunity to dialogue within their communities and advocate for an open and free internet. However, something that has been missing are international minimum standards that the global community can agree to abide by in diverse areas including but not limited to privacy, data protection, surveillance, inclusivity etc.

    • The jump from para 12 to para 13 is disjointed. Para 13 is clearly referring to cyber crime. There should be mention on the need for Digital or Electronic Evidence rules, issues of admissibility, uniform timestamping protocols, judicial training etc.

    • I mentioned something on Privacy in a previous comment in relation to the banning of VPNs in China…etc. There was also discussion in the remote chat during the APrIGF about the need to regulate agreements and create international minimum standards. For instance telcos and providers at the edge or OTT onsell customer information etc. So it’s not just government doing surveillance but private sector as well. The NRIs are well positioned to foster and engage in dialogue in the macro APrIGF level as well as in their respective jurisdictions to engage in elaborate discussion.

  • Samridh Kudesia

    • I want to raise the dilemma that I as a consumer face on a daily basis. While I would like to use local, smaller vendors for their online services so that the bigger corporate giants do not form a monopoly, I am also aware that these small vendors might not be able to keep my data as secure as the bigger companies could. This is a conflict, and I would love for the community to come up with a way to resolve this issue.

  • Samuel Akinsola

    • This is a stage we can appreciate and manage the internet and its resources for a better use.

      There are alot of diversities with the internet but all works for our advantage if we know just how and when to use it.

      We cannot forget the stone age, centuries ago where thinking level was just sifficient for that era and in this age we need something very admirable and that can make us discover the future. The internet is its name and it has its starting point.

      Evolution is caused by thinking change that will effect the human race. The internet has totally brought change that has affected the way we dress, behave and think; what of the way we learn? it is drastically changing. Notwithstanding we need a way of curbing its consequencies to work for our good at all times.

      The ineternet has provided a platform to commit subtle crime, more secretive more conscious, yet it has not changed our uniqueness as humanbeigns.

      I really appreciate the topic for the 2015 and hope it serves even a better purpose to grass root local communities around the continent and the world to be a tool that gives sound information and not to create a decadence in moral statndard.

  • Sanya Reid Smith

    • Therefore we think it is important to build bridges with the trade negotiators and increase their understanding of the technology and the far-reaching implications of these rules. Users and the technical community have not been sufficiently involved in this trade rule-making process on these issues, their voice should be heard (for example via effective stakeholder consultations) and their concerns taken into account. Better engagement of these underrepresented communities is needed in these processes.

    • Governments need to balance many considerations (not just free flow of data for innovation) including the need to require data to be stored locally for a number of reasons including: to investigate tax evasion (eg New Zealand), for privacy (eg Australia), to be able to do timely and effective financial regulation the way the USA couldn’t during the 2008 financial crisis because some Lehman Brothers data was stored in Hong Kong etc.

    • Given the current ecommerce proposals being negotiated at the World Trade Organization (WTO), it makes more sense to replace ‘How can they be harmoniously combined with the existing global trade regimes’? with ‘What are the implications of the international trade rules currently being negotiated in the name of ‘ecommerce’ on the ability to regulate these technologies and development more broadly?’

  • Satish Babu

  • Satish Babu

  • Satish Babu

  • Sebastian Hoe

    • WS10
      Child-Led research by 22 amazing guangzhou young delegate (upper primary school age). They research over 8 chinese cities of children perspective. Comprising of quantitative and qualitative data.

      3 key takeaways.

      1. Mental health component in Internet Governance IG issues are intertwined with social issues. Safer internet, cybersecurity & regulation. Qualitative case example cited by young delegate, child commit suicide as parent confiscate their phone. Mental wellness need to be address via education and also Multistakeholder approach.

      2. Need for evidence-based practice, this child-led research is an example whereby such research can be utilize for professionals whether from internet governance or relevant field that works with children such as social worker.

      3. Child perspective must be balance with adult perspective that promotes the welfare and wellness of the child in Safer internet, cybersecurity & regulation.

      🇸🇬

  • Sein Ma Ma

    • Agree on this point. Not only the youth, but the elderly are also important to have good knowledge and awareness about cybersecurity, cyberbullying, fake news, hate speeches, etc. and all the things that can be dangerous via the internet.
      For instance, a gullible person may be both a youth or middle-aged and even an elderly who is used to believe the occurrences on the internet and spread the news about it which can harm someone direct or indirect way by emotionally, financially, socially, and reputationally.

      Therefore, the elderly should be added too in the discussion of Internet Governance so they become familiar with both the advantages and disadvantages of the internet and how to protect themselves. And we are able to realize their perceptive of using the internet and lessons learned in order to have the idea how we should better promote the awareness of Internet Governance for all age level.

    • Agree on this point. Not only the youth, but the elderly are also important to have good knowledge and awareness about cybersecurity, cyberbullying, fake news, hate speeches, etc. and all the things that can be dangerous via the internet.
      For instance, a gullible person may be both a youth or middle-aged and even an elderly who is used to believe the occurrences on the internet and spread the news about it which can harm someone direct or indirect way by emotionally, financially, socially, and reputationally.

      Therefore, the elderly should be added too in the discussion of Internet Governance so they become familiar with both the advantages and disadvantages of the internet and how to protect themselves. And we are able to realize their perceptive of using the internet and lessons learned in order to have the idea how we should better promote the awareness of Internet Governance for all age level.

  • Shah Rahman

    • Rising awareness among developing countries nation’s most important then introducing policy framework. In many cases have seen for example in Bangladesh they didn’t know using social media they’re doing crime. Policy and regulations will be much more effective only when everyone have good understanding of right or wrong on the internet.

    • With the trend of Digital ecosystem facilities us doing e-commerce, online shopping,mobile money transfer…etc. on the other hand consumers are not have adequate knowledge of rights, there’s products received found not satisfy quality thts has been assured by the e-commerce platform and most of the case they didn’t mentioned penalty or they have tendency to overlook it as result consumers are loosing better service.
      Though have rising digital economy through digital services or platform but have huge lack of digital governance for which end user can be beneficial for the developing countries.

    • WS30

      Computing machines or machine learning algorithm should be free from biased. However considering diversity of data in algorithm can provide machine to take right decisions. Inclusion of ethics and norms programmer or Innovator can direct a machine from wrong to right.however besides those, need good human centric principles and morality to address awareness behind computing machines.

    • Network shutdown is common phenomenon in the Asia Pacific specially in developing countries where nation’s are really not aware of there right, it seems government is all in all to dominate people’s freedom of speech over online.
      They don’t bother to shut whole internet though have high impact of digital economy . To overcome this barrier combined voice and collaborative effort like isp, Telco,human rights, end users should raise voice to stop this bad practices. Internet governance should regulate participating all stakeholders, not only by government however criticism of those practice may reduce shut down issues.

    • Stackholder concern may focus on accountability could lead to a top-down rather than bottom-up framing for a partnership. Also need to focus on realities on the ground and to build space for listening and dialogue. However multilateralism it is seen as an attractive alternative. particularly in the corporate world,
      multistakeholder governance as offering a more direct hand and poten-tially a legitimate role in national and global governance. Most important to identify dentifies gaps and limitations in governance and questions the illusion of democracy and participation.

    • Use of e-governance can make public administration fast and effective, provide better services, and respond to the demands of transparency and accountability.

      E-governance stimulates economic growth and promotes social inclusion of disabled and vulnerable sections of society.

      E-governance can provide benefits in the form of new employment, better health, better education, knowledge sharing, skills developments and capacity building for sustainable development.

      Overall Quick and fast e-services eliminate middlemen and save both time and money.

  • Sheen Handoo

    • Add text in support of encryption – encourage setting encryption standards as per global standards- without any maximum limit.

    • Where referring to private sectors to come up with connectivity initiatives/solution, add text “support innovative business models”.

    • Can there be another section specifically on internet blocks? Suggested text: “Shutdown, throttling, and other disruptions of the internet or of a subset of websites, apps, and services are deeply concerning as they have tremendous, negative economic and social consequences. Governments must adhere to their international human rights commitments and ensure that any restrictions on freedom of expression—including disruptions of internet service—meet the thresholds of legality, necessity, and proportionality set out in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”.

  • Shita Laksmi

    • In Asia Pacific, majority of the connection is via mobile phone. There is a different quality of accessing meaningfully the Internet via laptop or PC versus via mobile phone. The early adopter countries –which have access to Internet way before others– started their connection via cable and PC. The quality of accessing Internet via mobile phone, certainly has more limited quality.

      It would be good to have specific intervention on how to make mobile access Internet better engaged with people.

      Technology is not working in vacuum, the same with Internet. It depends on many factors and how you connect is also important.

  • Shradha Pandey

    • The applicability of international human rights instruments and conventions has been in conflict with the traditional idea of sovereignty. It would definitely give a stronger clarity if we could clearly state the usage of “human rights” and “ethics” so the conflict and confusion can be avoided in the future.

    • The express use of ‘Privacy by design’ can go a long way in giving a proper direction to the SMEs and Start-ups in relation to their technological innovations. Especially since the SME’s are predominant in the Global South and Privacy and Protection are not given due importance in the design process as compared to the Global North.

    • The idea of ‘barefoot engineering’ has been gaining popularity in current times. Under this the ICT companies use their Corporate Social Responsibility funds to train youth; consequently, absorbing them in company activities and creating new employment opportunities. This creates a positive cycle of digital literacy and employment which can be used to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Shreedeep Rayamajhi

    • Especially in Asia Pacific the level of information in terms of disinformation is very less. Social media has been used as a tool of communication and has been bombarded with information both relevant and irrelevant. In both the case there is a threat of the vulnerable group. Trust Factor in internet was always limited as there was limited participation and recognition of inclusion. The Trust is growing with the mutlistakeholder approach where inclusion and diversity play a crucial role in the adaptation and mitigation process

  • Shubha

  • Sivasubramanian M

    • Internet Governance participants could consider Core Internet values as a set of values that the Internet ought not to slip away from. The architectural values –  Internet as dumb technology, end to end architecture, inter-operability and openness – values arising out of the Internet’s design by the intent of the early inventors and the natural evolution of the Internet beyond their intent- could be deemed as unalterable core values. The underlying technical values result in larger sociological benefits. For instance the technical value of interoperability results in the sociological benefit of a Global Network of networks. The architectural values of openness and interoperability make the Internet as a Network of networks that require little architectural changes when a new network joins the Internet, or even when there are unforeseen technological developments such as Mobile Networks or unforeseen trends such as IPv6 or the proliferation of the Internet of Things. There are threats to the border-less Internet arising out of geographical borders raised by Governments as well as artificial borders raised by walled gardens and zero rating services. The IGF in its discussion on the horizontal theme of “Policy Options for connecting the next billion” could debate and emphasize that the stakeholders around the world formulate Internet Policy without hurting the core Internet Values.

  • Smita

  • Sophia

  • Steven

    • Under some countries which reach relative gender equality but the application of the IG related events are male/female dominating, it may not be appropriate to try to balance the amount of male/female. Since the real problem is in the awareness of the IG or other reasons, we should raise the awareness of the people instead of creating the the illusion of the gender diversity.

    • The encryption technology is thus a controversial point which needs to further discuss. To what extent should this encryption apply to our communication? How can we fight against the hate speech, fake news, child pornography etc if these are circulating in the encryption personal message? If there is cybercrime in the encryption message, can government intervene in and get the encryption key? If the cybercrime is cross-countries, how do governments battle against it and sustain the freedom of speech online?

    • Before adding the new stakeholder in the discussion of Internet governance, we should consider its uniqueness and the urgency to include them. Different subthemes under the Internet governance may show the different level of uniqueness and urgency to include them in the discussion. For example, in the access and universality session, the urgency to include the different social status people may outweigh the urgency to include the elderly. As the technology is evolving, there should also be consecutive research focusing on which potential stakeholders are lagging behind. In different issues, there would be different stakeholders we need to focus on more. How to build up a more flexible multistakeholder participation and give the most needed but ignored stakeholders the priority to participate is our next thing.

    • In the YIGF session, participants discussed about the fact checking system in social media. Youth expressed the concern about the rampant fake news in South-east Asia country like Philippine. All of us agree on the implementation of clear and appropriate regulation, which needs the collaboration of all stakeholders. However, to uphold the freedom of speech, we propose to suspend the account instead of removing the account as social media companies do when violating the community standard. We should also rely on AI to inspect the content while we investigate the manpower behind in the fact checking mechanism and study the controversial content. With the advent of AI checking the content and generating the news, the traditional journalism can fully engage in the mechanism with its role to give the people to right to know the truth to alleviate the threat of losing job.

  • SUDHA BHUVANESWARI N

  • Sunny Chendi

  • Suphannee Grace Burnell

    • 1.”Access” is one component of New Media Competence or Digital literacy. All groups need ability to access as same as they need knowledge to “analyze” messages and “Create” their own message at the same time.
      2. As we know the population of senior citizens all over the world are grew up and Digital literacy and digital access have become increasingly important for all cohorts. That’s the reason why we can not ensure that senior citizens may be regarded as a homogenous group, We can not think this group does not want or is not able to make use of ICT but we need to understand their limitation and support them.

  • Swapna

    • One must consider whether the right to receive and impart information should be qualified at all either with legitimate or any other. In any case, anything that is not permissible under existing laws will have its own consequences.

  • Swaran Ravindra

  • Sylvia Cadena

  • Talant Sultanov

    • As about half of the world’s population is now connected to the Internet, the other half is still offline. People in the unconnected communities generally reside in remote, rural and other hard to reach areas. Due to the low rate of return, the private sector does not find it profitable to connect such communities. At the same time, governments do not always have the funds to build the necessary infrastructure. There is, however, a help-yourself model, where communities themselves can take steps to get connected – Community Networks (CNs). Community Networks are of the people, by the people, for the people.

      Community Networks and other community-based connectivity initiatives could be a viable alternative to traditional large scale commercial networks in providing access to unconnected communities. Slowing growth in voice and internet connectivity has prompted renewed interest in alternative approaches to addressing the needs of the billions of people in developing countries who still suffer from ineffective communications services due to affordability and coverage limitations. Community Networks, aside from helping to meet worldwide aspirations for universal access, as encapsulated in the Sustainable Development Goals, also provide other advantages including more local control over how the network is used, greater potential for attention to the needs of women and other marginalized groups, retention of more funds within the community and increased potential to foster a sense of agency and empowerment within the community. These networks provide the trainings for the local residents on safe use of the internet. Raising capacity is one of the key aspects of such initiatives.

      Communities tackle the infrastructures that are embedded in and affect deploying and adopting telecoms. These infrastructures include all sorts of social, technical, political, legal, administrative, methodological and institutional structures and processes. We must continue identifying policy and regulatory changes needed at the national level, as well as financial and technical support that CNs in the region require so they are on the same playing field as telecoms and further highlight issues such as the need for increased access to spectrum/telecom data which will contribute to breaking down structural inequalities when it comes to access. CNs relate very well to the over-all theme of “Enabling a safe, secure and universal internet for all”. Community Network are run by the communities and for the communities, making internet affordable and accessible for otherwise unconnected people.

    • * [WS55. Community Networks – Connecting the Hardest Half]
      The above comment is in relation to this section

  • tan tarn how

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      I suggest that under priorities we add this:
       
      A Civilised, Safe And Healthy Internet: That access is accompanied by awareness, education and actions by all parties from governments to service providers, content providers, NGOs and individual users, including parents, to develop and maintain an internet that is civilised, safe and healthy, in particular engendering the development of such an Internet by media literacy from an early age.
       

    • Sorry, my comment earlier was wonky.

       

      I suggest that under priorities we add this:

      A Civilised, Safe And Healthy Internet: That access is accompanied by awareness, education and actions by all parties from governments to service providers, content providers, NGOs and individual users, including parents, to develop and maintain an internet that is civilised, safe and healthy, in particular engendering the development of such an Internet by media literacy from an early age.

  • Thilina Pathirana

  • tripti (Sflc.in)

  • vashkar bhattacharjee

    • a. Providing information intended for the general public to persons with disabilities in accessible formats and technologies appropriate to different kinds of disabilities in a timely manner and without additional cost;
      b. Accepting and facilitating the use of sign languages, augmentative and alternative communication, and all other accessible means, modes and for&mats of communication of their choice by persons with disabilities in official interactions;
      c. Urging private entities that provide services to the general public, including through the Internet, to provide information and services in accessible and usable formats for persons with disabilities;
      d. Encouraging the mass media, including providers of information through the Internet, to make their services accessible to persons with disabilities;
      e. Promote the design, development, production and distribution of accessible information and communications technologies and systems at an early stage, so that these technologies and systems become accessible at minimum cost.
      f. Promote other appropriate forms of assistance and support to persons with disabilities to ensure their access to information;
      g. Promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet;
      h. purchase of ICT software and hardware by government for public office, education institution and work place need to be usable with the help of assistive technology for example, all software to be usable with the help of screen reading software.
      i. . concept on Accessible ICT development must include promotion of “universal design” and “assistive technologies”. Government must address the crucial importance of “ICT accessibility standards/guidelines development”.

    • Please include inclusive Internet Governance in the last line.

  • Vishaarad

  • Wanawit Ahkuputra

    • 2. “Universal Acceptance” I do believe that the term were specific to ICANN Initiative Ramp up at ICANN 52 and under  The primary drivers for Universal Acceptance stem from the 4 elements. In this APrIGF we focus on 2 elements which refer in Universal Acceptance as

      Non-Latin based TLDs: TLDs with names written in scripts other than ASCII, such as Hindi, Japanese and Greek.”

      which in this placeholder we call Internationalized Domain Name (IDN)

      and

      “International Email: The introduction of non-ASCII names in email. While IDNs solved part of the ability to have non-ASCII names for servers, it doesn’t solve the ability to have non-ASCII names for mailboxes.”

      which in this place holder we call Email Address Internationalization (EAI)

      I fully understand that the term specify in the place holder item 2. is more generic term and better term that what use in the Universal Acceptance Initiative Background section.

      If the term EAI is came from IETF and IDN is the ICANN term but not refer in the background of Universal Acceptant. We should make it clear that which should be the based of our definition

      I support the term already use in this document is more generic and understandable.

       

    • Reference to : IGF 2014 Chair’s Summary :Connecting Continents for Enhanced Multistakeholder Internet Governance• 2-5 September 2014, Istanbul, Turkey •

      “Summary and way forward” and

      “Ways Forward/Recommendations”

      were use in the document.

    • Reference to : IGF 2014 Chair’s Summary :Connecting Continents for Enhanced Multistakeholder Internet Governance• 2-5 September 2014, Istanbul, Turkey •

      Section 1.1 page 7

      “A revitalisation of the format and content of the Chair’s Summary to suggest intersessional work modalities for the IGF and to make the IGF outcomes and outputs more portable and visible, so that they can be taken forward, as appropriate and on voluntary basis, by relevant Internet governance bodies, institutions and organisations.”

      That might be also give the idea of the spirit of why APrIGF would like to have the outcome document. But in IGF they call Chair’s Summary.

    • Why “the setting of global encryption standards is encourage” relate to the security stability and resiliency of the internet infrastructure”

    • VI. Digital Economy and Trade

      VI. Digital Economy and Trade Agreement

      “challenge traditional national borders”

      Is that challenge the jurisdiction .\

  • wanawit ahkuputra

  • Winston Roberts

    • I agree that the APrIGF conference needs an outcomes document, to demonstrate that so much effort has been productive. This is important for the organisations which sponsor workshops and for the agencies which fund the participation of regional experts.

       

    • I suggest giving the full title of the WS.

    • In the last line I suggest you delete ‘from’ and give the exact dates in December.

    • Hi, as the convenor of WS74, I’m glad to see lots of people ‘got’ what our panel of speakers were saying. It is also correct that the library sector experts (civil society) who I represented at APrIGF regularly attend the global IGF and advocate for “access to information”. I refer you back to the WSIS Geneva ‘Principles’ (2003) which have very clear wording on the need to plan for appropriate technology + skills training + buildings (telecentres, libraries, dual-purpose schools/community information kiosks, whatever you want to call them…) to help grassroots communities cross the digital divide. ‘Access to information’ is not a nice ideal, it is a basic necessity to help people get education, to improve their life chances. It has an economic impact. That is why the WSIS Geneva action lines included e-health, e-education, e-agriculture, etc…

      I agree with the person who said this section probably needs to be split up a little more, to give a little more space to expand the ideas. But it doesn’t need too much rewriting, just enough to refer to the authoritative documents which already exist, briefly quoting a few key concepts from them.

    • I think the question is not whether or not the document is INTENDED to be representative – I would prefer to say ‘fully representative’- but rather whether it really can be, for practical reasons, such as the difficulties in being sure we have managed to reach out to all and get back responses from all relevant people in such a diverse and wide-spread region. If you agree with that, could I suggest re-wording the paragraph as: “…..online platform). The APrIGF Multistakeholder Steering Group (MSG) [6] and the Drafting Committee [7] accept that the Synthesis Document cannot be fully representative of the very diverse Asia Pacific region. Nevertheless, they anticipate that the development of this Synthesis Document can help drive active participation ……(etc..)”

    • I agree with Maureen’s rewording of the IGF dates.

    • I agree; and I believe we should continue to capitalise it.

    • I agree with the addition of words about cultural diversity proposed in previous comments, I will leave it to Jen to do some complex editing there :-)
      Part of the problem with this para is that it combines aims, mechanisms and outcomes in very compressed language. Trying to keep it brief also makes it a bit obscure in places. However I think we should resist the temptation to add in too much more text, because we have the references to key source documents (which include the WSIS and SDG material).
      But having said that, I would propose one key addition, as follows:
      After “improve digital literacy”, I suggest adding “and access to information resources which support education and life-long learning. Community networks facilitate effective access by marginalised and underserved communities.”

    • After “underserved regions”, could we add “(including the small island developing states)”.
      It is implied, but it would be good to make it explicit.

    • I agree with Ang Peng Hwa and others that we should emphasise the importance of agreed international instruments at the beginning of the paragaph. As one of the drafters of the WSIS Geneva “Principles”, I clearly recall the debates at the WSIS about this matter: there were attempts to water down references to the UDHR, in fact some took the view there was no need to bother mentioning Human Rights at all, and that we just needed to focus on technical ‘information’ matters… You have to wonder why… Fortunately reason prevailed, and the Geneva ‘Principles’ do make sufficient reference to the UDHR. Internet Governance, like all other policy areas, has to be developed within the framework of such agreed international instruments. We need to take an inclusive approach that allows for new and emerging issues.

    • Yes, good text. There are honestly-held contrary viewpoints in this area, and we will just have to wait until the international community has come closer to a common position.

    • Maybe you mean insert between para 25 and 26?

  • Winston Roberts

  • xxx

  • Yannis Li

  • Yeseul

    • As I’ve been interested in this topic( and partly inspired by Izumi’s workshop since last year IGF), I’ve written a short paper on the deployment of IPv6 and social, political factors affecting the deployment level. Anyone can find the paper at my blog(borisu0815.github.io), and hope this can help facilitate the discussions.

    • Good points. This can be discussed in the next APrIGF or APSIG, and we will compile your opinion for the next draft.

    • Thanks Ang for your input. Will update accordingly.

    • Thanks, Dorren for your input. I would like to hear more aoug Digital Economy and other emerging technologies from the Pacific. Would you be able to make some more comments on the issues specific to the Pacific countries?

      Thanks!

    • Cross-Border Data Flows Enable the Digital Economy | Public Policy

    • According to McKinsey research, international data flows have increased global GDP by 10.1 per cent over the past decade. Both ASEAN and APEC have officially recognised in their privacy frameworks the vital contribution that cross-border data flows make to trade and economic growth in their region. Although the Asia Pacific region has made good progress in developing and implementing data privacy frameworks that both protect citizens and allow data to flow across borders, the report highlights that variances in data privacy laws across countries are holding back trade and innovation.

      source: https://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/regional-privacy-frameworks-and-cross-border-data-flows?utm_content=76645995&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin

    • I agree with Andrew and Mariko’s opinion although I also think we should bear in mind what Paul has said here.

      So what about adding one or two sentences focusing on the specific conditions that APAC regions face (or even may pacific regions face) in the beginning of the synthesis document so that it can be widely known to the world community? As Pacific IGF was also held during the APrIGF this year, this will not go against what Paul suggested above – to report the discussions and agreements of the APrIGF 2018.

    • We have witnessed a spiking number of successful female CEOs who have built their businesses mostly online and then could extend these to offline. The benefits of these online businesses initiated by female CEOs are more than the economic empowerment, as those businesses are mostly for the women thus can satisfy the needs of women which might have been shunned or disrespected by those which have focused on the needs of the male customers. This is not only about the female communities but also for other marginalized communities as well. By running business online which focuses on their own needs, these traditionally marginalized groups can be empowered comparatively easily.

      I sometimes feel uncomfortable with the discussions which try to treat women as a special group which needs special supports. Although this can be still true to many of the regions on the earth, I would also like to emphasize that quite a large number of female CEOs could successfully build their businesses online, and we are also seeing the even bigger number of female CEOs using SNS to leverage their businesses in Asian regions.

    • Here, educating the youth and the marginalized communities is essential to increase their access to the Internet. Governments can actively implement the public policies and public education systems which ensure educating these communities so that they can be equitably benefitted from the Internet and other technological developments.

    • Thanks for all the comments.
      My question here is, how many people are aware of existing organizations working on the same issues? For example, Nadira mentioned IGmena working on collecting domestic laws from each difrerent region and it’s important to work toward more collaborative law makings regarding the internet. However, there are already existing organizations present worldwide which have been working on the same topic – Internet & Jurisdiction based in Paris, for example. Gayatri and het peers are also working on archiving the laws from Asian countries regarding the Internet. IGmena’s work should also be part of this broader institutional and organizational effort. And there will be other groups – probably government officials and lawyers from each region – who have done the same job.

      My question is, how can we break this silo-ed works from each different organizations with the same aim and purpose? I think the next step for the Internet Governance should be bridging the existing organizations which are ultimately doing the same works without knowing what others are doing

    • And how can we increase the power of law enforcement worldwide esepcially when there are some states or soverign nations which resist to follow the rulings of the international court, etc?

  • Yeseul Kim

  • Ying-Chu Chen

    • If government want regulated some internet new services, government should also invite technical group inside, to take the advice from technical groups or communities. Or, to build the process in the multistakholder model to include more diversity and broader opinions.

    • We need to make the balance in development, innovation, economy and human rights.
      It also relates with company governance with ethics issue.

    • 1. Need to define what is “traditional business”?Some business just don’t want to change their transaction with internet or they would like to choose cash and decline the credit card or other cashless payment.

      2. E-commerce is a way to purchase commodities or services on the internet. If some business don’t have the capacity to do business in electronic way, should we push them to e-commerce?

      3. If the “traditional business” means industries, we need to define which industry should do digital transformation? Manufacturing? Publish? Medias? Retail? Each industry has to face different digitalization issues. So, please make more clear with industry or commerce. If we only talk about online retailing, please use specific words.

    • ICT may contribute to SDGs in their way. Emerging technology may make everything change rapidly. People need to learn more skills and compete with algorithms, robotics.

      Government has the power and should provide social welfare policy to take care of the minority groups, lower income people, make every sector can participate economic activities.

      Big tech companies may take their responsibility to make feedback to the society. But government may provide some incentives to encourage big tech companies or startups to hire some disable people or provide job opportunities to women, minority groups.

      That is the concept of social safety net. Social safety net is provided by government or institution or other communities. When people lost their job, the social safety net may provide some basic welfare to help them, e.g, training new skills or re-training to build more ability. That may help those unemployed people to re-build their confident and back to the economy activities.

      Social safety net also to help to make a stable society, decrease the criminal event.

      This is not a responsibility for ICTs or government, this is for all sectors. Rapid development technology may instead of human being in the future. There will be some more unknown jobs (for now) for the future society.

      If we need a social welfare policy, how to have a social welfare policy with multistakeholder model?

    • We may think in 1) Development in cyber norms 2) How to implement cyber norms.
      Norms and law are different. But norms and law are similar and overlaping. Norms are collection from expertise. Develop the norms, self-regulation with the norms. Norms should be developed from bottom-up in multistakeholder model. UNGGE cyber norms is from government view of point.
      If norms have power, it is dangerous. It becomes to be regulations or laws. We need to careful about the cyber norms more.

    • With DNSSEC topic:
      1. Europe and Asia Pacific are both big regions. Each country has different development process and some countries will think to upgrade their Internet Infrastructure first , then maybe security.
      2. Small Medium Enterprises may not afford the cost of deploying DNSSEC. They have to face these issues, upgrade the server, higher cost and latency issue. They need to satisfy their customer and also think about secure. They choose to satisfy their customer first, then think about security.
      3. Big Tech company should take the responsibility to help the DNSSEC deployment. For example, some e-commerce websites have never heard about SSL or https. But one day, Google ask them if not use SSL to encrypt the data transmission, they will take down the search engine optimize ranking. Then those websites will deploy the SSL. Maybe it can be worked in DNSSEC deployment.

    • Your statement looks like in accessibility and internet infrastructure to close the digital divide or inclusion in rural area. Perhaps can definite clear about this section more clear, for example: digital transformation in rural area / region will be better in talk digital economy development in rural region.

      Without internet infrastructure, digital transformation and basic internet / telecommunication infrastructure, it will be very difficult to talk about next step in e-business or e-commerce.

    • 1. Thinking for a e-portal for Pacific islands countries. What’s the purpose for the e-portal? Who will be the audience to this websites?

      2. e-Government can provide a transparent way to encourage people to participate the government activities and know their government. e-Government also present a government may their services online. Then people can understand the government services from the website and interact with their government. The structure are not hierarchy anymore. It becomes more horizontal.

      3. e-Government or e-Portal may help foreign users know your country well. They may know any incentives to the business, any policies encourage foreign enterprises to invest in local. Also government may ask to foreign to upgrade the infrastructure and training / education local people. Some countries encourage foreign companies to set a branch there with taxation reduction or tax relief, but they have to provide more job opportunities, training and re-training to local people.

      4. To foreign immigration or expats, they may want to know more information with any welfare or public equipment, e.g. raising children, child education, those policies from e-gov website.

    • Transparency is important to different stakeholders. Users know how service providers use our data. People know how government use the data and participate in policy making procedures.
      For example, we talked about smart city development yesterday. But some people don’t know the schedule and worry about the surveillance with CCTV everywhere and harm to privacy.

    • We all need to close the digital development gap between rural and urban. Welcome and give opportunities talents to participate local development by affordable and reliable (internet or other) infrastructures.

    • Geopolitics really affects the internet development. The content on the internet is cross border, some government govern the internet with their own perspective. Government may prohibit some internet services, content, do censorship to social network platform.
      It may also relate to the tax. Users consume the services in one country but the pay in the other country, the services or goods were delivered in another country. That relates the tariff or consumer tax in different countries.

    • We know the pandemic forces some enterprises to do digital transformation. People have to work from home and some people lost their job. Hope the ICT technology may help the people to get chance to have new job.

      The other thing is Google and Apple collaborate together to provide the social distance map to warning. Hope that can protect the privacy to everyone.

    • Encryption technic help to protection privacy to every internet users. Government has the responsibility to take care of safety to every people. Citizens and commercial services can to something to limit the government behavior, ask to the underline to government behavior.

      Transparency Report help enterprise to protect commercial services themselves. Companies may record the requests from government and make those numbers public.

      The link is an example from Google’s transparency report.

  • Ying-Chu Chen

  • Yohani S Ranasinghe

    • Capacity building should be done and different approaches need to be identified to spread the awareness about the Internet Governance within the community because first, we need to attract more people to the discussion then only we can empower our multi-stakeholder model.

      To attract more stakeholders, the benefits of these type of discussions or forums must be conveyed to them and it will be helpful for people to improve interest. Clear idea about the final outcome of the multi-stakeholder discussion needs to be conveyed.

      When more people are engaging it is obvious to face more challenges when coming to a conclusion but approaches need to be identified and the experience can be shared among national IGF in this regards and how they overcome these challenges.

      Time is one of the greatest challenges different groups face when they need to gather and discuss, we need to identify different communication platforms especially online platforms that can be used effectively for these kinds of conversations. If face to face meetings are difficult at least it is worth meeting online rather than doing nothing.

  • Yusuke KANEKO/Yohei MITSUHIRO/Rika TSUNODA

  • Zakir

  • ZHAOHAN Li

    • Nowadays, it cannot be denied that many countries have the access gap in AP region, but we believe that the situation is getting better because the governments have recognized this issue and they’re working hard to improve this situation. However, there is one thing that few people concern, that is,balance is needed between over-access and lack of access in a country especially the access to education information. Resources are limited,children in the areas with high level of accessibility may face the problem of Internet addiction or over-reliance, while those in the areas lack of Internet access cannot benefit from Internet. Empowerment should be lead the Internet to a more benefit way, it needs balance and reasonable guidance to the access issue for different areas of AP region countries. Aged people also need special capacity building.

    • Law enforcement agencies and the technical community need more communications and collaboration together. Make LEA have more technical guidance and info on the practical security issues, and make the two sides understand each other’s concerns comprehensively. All the stakeholders need to contribute.

    • It’s not opposite between data localization and cross-border data flow. Data localization and legislation should develop together with the national regulation on cross-border data-flow, need more integration and balance.

    • In the panel on Privacy in the Digital Age & the Rule of Law, a concern was expressed that there must be some balance in the issue of privacy: the balance between individuals and states, individuals and businesses, individuals and individuals. There is an initial consensus that it’s necessary to pursue the balance on privacy issues from the perspective of pragmatism. Law enforcement need specific data to some extent to solve the crime problems as well as safeguard public security.

    • The last sentence is not that comprehensive. When we think about securing the Internet, it usually means ensuring network security and stable operation, maintaining the integrity、confidentiality and availability of network data, effectively responding to network security incidents, and then preventing cybercrime and the ability to trace criminal activities.

    • The second sentence:
      Digital trade and e-commerce have already become the key enablers of the global economic growth and has been changing the ecosystem of the traditional trade.

      It is not a point that needs to be predicted, but is already happening. Right?

    • The last sentence is inaccurate and logically confused.

      Good national governance and legislation do contribute to the successful economic development but they are not the prerequisites definitely. For many countries, national governance and legislation often fall behind economic development. It could only say that, good national governance policies and timely legislation will create a better environment for economy development.

      Additionally,national governance,policy making and legislation are all at the national level. Supranational cooperation is at the international level. Two aspects need to be considered together.

Source: https://comment.rigf.asia/comments-by-commenter/